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Johnson, Marion

Full Name: Johnson, Marion

Other Names:

  • Georgina Masson
  • Babs
  • Georgina Johnson

Gender: female

Date Born: 23 March 1912

Date Died: 1980

Place Born: Rawalpindi, Punjab Province, Pakistan

Place Died: London, Greater London, England, UK

Home Country/ies: Italy and United Kingdom


Overview

Architectural- and garden historian;  photographer.  Born to a British military officer stationed at the time at the Khyber Pass, Pakistan, she grew up in a military family.  Educated in Bath, England, in a secondary school for daughters of British officers, she never attended higher education. Johnson worked for the British government in Paris as part of a public relations unit (and perhaps also for British military intelligence) in the years before World War II.  She returned to Britain where she married a British army officer, working for the Foreign Office between 1943 and 1947. At the conclusion of the Second World War, now estranged from her husband, she was attached semi-officially to the British Fifth Army in Rome. There she met Prince Filippo Andrea Doria Pamphili Landi (1886-1958) an Italian politician and nobleman, who rented her the former stable quarters of the Palazzina Corsini on his property.  Johnson decorated the apartment where it became a haven for expatriates and locals alike.  These stables opened to the palace’s garden and she took a subsequent interest in garden history.

By 1950 she adopted the name of a maternal grandmother, Georgina Masson, partially to hide her Roman publishing activities from her husband.  Johnson, now Masson, began studying Roman architecture and its surrounding gardens with an improvised camera.  A large portion of her research was performed at the Fondazione Caetani in the city.  Her initial publications were in architecture, her first article being one in 1950 on Palladian villas for Country Life.  Then followed a series of articles for Architectural Review.  One of them, her 1955 article, “Palladian Villas as Rural Centres,” impressed a young architectural history student (and later eminent Harvard Palladian architectural historian) James S. Ackerman who recounted it as the first time he’d read an article that considered the economic, social and political aspects of art (Ackerman, Origins).  Her first book was one of historical biography on Frederick II Hohenstaufen in 1957.  Publishing success came with the advent of the “coffee table book”, large-format highly illustrated art books.  The publisher Thames and Hudson issued a book of her photographs and text as Italian Villas and Palaces in 1959.  The combination of Masson’s artistic photographs and her easy though well-researched writing style made the book popular to a British economy only now emerging from the economic hardships of World War II. She later acquired a Roleiflex camera with which she took some of her most important photographs.  A book on Italian gardens of the same genre followed in 1961, published jointly in the United States by the emerging US coffee-table publisher, Harry N. Abrams.  Over time she developed connections with many British nobility and writers, most notably Evelyn Waugh and Harold Acton, the latter having come from an art-dealing family and living in Florence. She developed a close relationship with literary historian and Rome specialist Gunhild Bergh (1888-1961).  In 1965 the book for which she is most remembered, A Companion Guide to Rome, appeared, dedicated to Bergh. Numerous subsequent editions followed.  Masson returned to biography with a book on Queen Christina of Sweden, the Swedish monarch who forsook her native country to live in Rome.  Garden history, ever a passion, absorbed her later interests.  The results of study and travel to Harvard University’s garden and research center, Dumbarton Oaks, appeared the same year as the Christina biography, Dumbarton Oaks: a Guide to the Gardens.  When the Italian government purchased the Doria Pamphili in 1971, Masson lived briefly in rural Tuscany, aided by Acton.  Unhappy with the country life, she returned to Rome and a consultantship for the  Committee for the Defense of the Southern Landscape (of Italy).  There she did daily research at the American Academy in Rome near her apartment.  Diagnosed with cancer, she returned to England in 1978.  She completed a book on the Borgias before her death in 1980 and was at work on a history of the importation of special flower species in Italian gardens.  Only the Borgia book was published posthumously.  Her 5,000 photographic negatives were willed to the American Academy in Rome at her death.

A “vivid personality, sociable and outgoing with a non-stop flow of conversation” (Gendel), Masson’s prim but irascible nature won her a singular following. In a celebrated incident,  Alvar Gonzalez-Palacios (b. 1936), director of the periodical Arte Illustrata, published an article of hers in 1970 on seventeenth-century Italian flowers but failed to return her photos.  She publicly accused him of thievery at a party hosted by Acton. Her photographs are valued perhaps more than her writing, which, well-informed, never wholly embraced the scholarly. Her Guide to Rome is considered one of the last serious guidebooks to the city, with few restaurant tips or notices of popular amusements, it served as the educated tourists guide to the city by a foreigner who knew it well. Described as, “a cross between a guidebook and a work of literature (Wanted in Rome), it focused on archaeological and architectural treasures of the city.  Masson disliked the Baroque and those monuments are largely left out of the Guide.  Her photographic collection included social observation, architecture and gardens and contemporary historians value her images of 1950’s Roman neighborhoods.  It is still in print in later revisions by others.  She received the Ufficiale dell’Ordine al Merito della Republica Italiana for her work.


Selected Bibliography

  • “Palladian Villas as Rural Centres.”  Architectural Review 118 (July 1955):17-20;
  • Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. A life. London: Secker & Warburg,1957;
  • Italian Villas and Palaces. London: Thames & Hudson, 1959;
  • Italian Gardens. New York: Abrams, 1961;
  • The Companion Guide to Rome.  London: Collins, 1965;
  • Queen Christina. London: Secker Warburg, 1968;
  • Courtesans of the Italian Renaissance. London: Secker & Warburg, 1975;
  • The Borgias. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1981;

Sources


Archives

Fondazione Camillo Caetani, Rome


Contributors: Lee Sorensen


Citation

Lee Sorensen. "Johnson, Marion." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/johnsonm/.


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Architectural- and garden historian;  photographer.  Born to a British military officer stationed at the time at the Khyber Pass, Pakistan, she grew up in a military family.  Educated in Bath, England, in a secondary school for daughters

Juynboll, W. R.

Full Name: Juynboll, W. R.

Other Names:

  • W. R. Juynboll

Gender: male

Date Born: 20 May 1903

Date Died: 1977

Place Born: Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands

Place Died: Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands

Home Country/ies: Netherlands

Career(s): art historians


Overview

Co-editor of the encyclopedia, Winkler Prins van de Kunst. Juynboll belonged to a family of eminent scholars and university professors, particularly in the field of oriental studies. Juynboll, himself, however, after graduating from the Leiden Gymnasium, chose to study art history at Leiden University. Between 1931 and 1934 he was a research assistant at the Leiden University print room. In 1934 he earned his doctor’s degree with a dissertation on the comic genre in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Italian painting, Het komische genre in de Italiaanse schilderkunst gedurende de zeventiende en de achttiende eeuw. Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis van de caricatuur. In 1935 he became an art contributor to the daily newspaper Nieuwe Rotterdamse Courant (NRC). The following year he began teaching the history of Italian art at this Alma Mater. His inaugural lecture was on Baroque and Classicism in Rome, Barok en Classicisme te Rome. In the mid-1930s he was invited to revise and prepare for publication the biographical dictionary of Dutch Engravers that François Gérard Waller had left unfinished. This appeared in 1938 as F. G. Waller. Biographisch Woordenboek van Noord Nederlandsche Graveurs. Uitgegeven door de beheerders van het Waller Fonds en bewerkt door Dr. W. R. Juynboll. With the closing of Leiden University by the German occupying forces in 1941, Juyboll’s teaching position was eliminated. After the war, he was appointed curator at the Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie (RKD) in The Hague (Netherlands Institute for Art History) in 1947. Another major project followed in the mid-1950s, when he was asked to be the co-editor, along with the Belgian art historian Valentin Denis, of the three-volume encyclopedia Winkler Prins van de Kunst, encyclopedie van de architectuur, beeldende kunst, kunstnijverheid (1958-59). In much of his work on this he was assisted by his wife, Maria Susanna van Eysselsteyn. Juynboll was the author of the first compendium entry on the discipline of art history as well as of a number of longer entries, dealing with famous artists, periods and disciplines. Juynboll also contributed to Oudheidkundig Jaarboek, Oud Holland, Elsevier’s Maandschrift, and Emporium. In the early 1960s he sold his rich library to the Clark Art Institute (Williamstown, MA), stipulating that a number of his books would be shipped to the US only after his death. Juynboll died in 1977 in the vicinity of Leiden, Netherlands. One of his sons is the Islamic studies scholar G.H.A. Juynboll (b. 1935). In his encyclopedia article “Kunstgeschiedenis”, Juynboll argues that iconology should be considered a valuable auxiliary discipline of art history rather than serving as an essential art historical method, as it was done in his view by Erwin Panofsky and the school of the Warburg Institute.


Selected Bibliography

Het komische genre in de Italiaanse schilderkunst gedurende de zeventiende en de achttiende eeuw. Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis van de caricatuur. Leiden: N.V. Leidsche Uitgeversmaatschappij, 1934; Barok en Classicisme te Rome. Leiden: N.V. Leidsche Uitgeversmaatschappij, 1936; F. G. Waller. Biographisch Woordenboek van Noord Nederlandsche Graveurs. Uitgegeven door de beheerders van het Waller Fonds en bewerkt door Dr. W. R. Juynboll. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1938; De reis van Sir Joshua Reynolds in de Nederlanden. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1954; and Denis, Valentin (eds) Winkler Prins van de Kunst, encyclopedie van de architectuur, beeldende kunst, kunstnijverheid. 3 vols. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1958-1959.


Sources

Biografische gegevens van Nederlanders die een vooraanstaande plaats in het maatschappelijk leven innemen, met vermelding van adressen. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1956, p. 317; personal correspondence, Dr. G.H.A. Juynboll, Leiden, July 2010.




Citation

"Juynboll, W. R.." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/juynbollw/.


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Co-editor of the encyclopedia, Winkler Prins van de Kunst. Juynboll belonged to a family of eminent scholars and university professors, particularly in the field of oriental studies. Juynboll, himself, however, after graduating from the L

Justi, Ludwig

Full Name: Justi, Ludwig

Gender: male

Date Born: 1876

Date Died: 1957

Place Born: Marburg, Hesse, Germany

Place Died: Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany

Home Country/ies: Germany


Overview

Director of the National Gallery, Berlin, 1909-1933, nephew of the art historian Carl Nicolaus Heinrich Justi. When Hugo von Tschudi, the controversial director of the National-Galerie, was fired by Kaiser Wilhelm II for buying work too modern and too foreign (e.g. French Post-Impressionism and the works of van Gogh), Justi replaced him. Justi’s directorship fell under the control of the powerful Wilhelm Bode, director of the Generalverwaltung, the umbrella bureau of all Prussian art museums. However, Justi largely followed Tschudi’s progressivist acquisition policies. Dismissed by the Nazis in 1933 and succeeded by Eberhard Hanfstaengl.



Sources

Metzler Kunsthistoriker Lexikon: zweihundert Porträts deutschsprachiger Autoren aus vier Jahrhunderten. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1999, pp. 200-203; Wendland, Ulrike. Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler. Munich: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 341-7; Gaehtgens, Thomas, and Winkler, Kurt, eds. Ludwig Justi: Werden, Wirken, Wissen: Lebenserinnerunge aus fünf Jahrzehnten. 2 vols. Berlin: Nicholai, 2000.




Citation

"Justi, Ludwig." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/justil/.


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Director of the National Gallery, Berlin, 1909-1933, nephew of the art historian Carl Nicolaus Heinrich Justi. When Hugo von Tschudi, the controversial director of the National-Galerie, was fired by Ka

Justi, Carl Nicolaus Heinrich

Full Name: Justi, Carl Nicolaus Heinrich

Other Names:

  • Karl Justi

Gender: male

Date Born: 1832

Date Died: 1912

Place Born: Marburg, Hesse, Germany

Place Died: Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Home Country/ies: Germany

Subject Area(s): biography (general genre), Italian (culture or style), painting (visual works), Portuguese (culture or style), Renaissance, and Spanish (culture or style)


Overview

Scholar of Spanish, Portuguese and Italian Renaissance painting; employed a biographical approach to art history. Justi was the son of a pastor. From 1850 he studied theology in Marburg before switching to philosophy in Berlin. His interest was always in philology and esthetics, particularly classical esthetics. After graduation in 1859, Justi’s initial appointment was in Philosophy at the university in Marburg. While teaching at Marburg, he read the works of Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his enthusiasm for art history was confirmed. Beginning in 1866, Justi published a massive 3-volume account of Winckelmann’s writings. That same year he was appointed extraordinarius professor. Justi traveled to Italy to examine the monuments Winckelmann had seen. It was while researching Winckelmann and his numerous acquaintances, that Justi discovered the portrait of Innocent X by Velázquez in the Doria Palazzo Pamphili. Justi resolved to write the second major work of his career, a critical biography on the artist. He was made ordinarius (full) professor in 1869. He briefly taught at Kiel before succeeding Anton Springer as professor for art history at the University of Bonn in 1872, which position he held until 1901. That same year, 1872, Justi traveled to Spain to research on Spanish art. After numerous visits to Spain, Justi published on Bartolomé Esteban Murillo. He made excursions to St. Petersburg and England in 1875. Justi’s students in Bonn at this time included Aby M. Warburg, but Warburg’s interdisciplinary approach toward resulted in a stalemate and Warburg left for Berlin. Another student attending his classes was Wilhelm Vöge, who found him to be a poor teacher but charming bachelor scholar. At Bonn, Justi taught courses in esthetics (“with special reference to the Visual Arts”) and a seminar of Giorgio Vasari. In 1888, Justi’s Diego Velázquez und sein Jahrhundert appeared. Though generally well researched and innovative, a French scholar discovered that one of the letters by Velázquez quoted by Justi had been fabricated. Justi admitted the deceit in a 1905/06 discussion in Kunst-chronik, but stopped short of an apology. This caused one French journal to accuse German art history as little more than “trickery” in what it termed “Un faussaire boche.” In 1900, the third of his critical/biographical monographs appeared, this one on Michelangelo. After his death, the Carl Justi Vereinigung (Carl Nicolaus Heinrich Justi Society) was founded “to provide a forum for mutual scholarly and personal exchange for those art historians who address Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American art history in their research.” The Carl-Justi Straße in Bonn is named for him. His nephew, Ludwig Justi, was the director of the National Gallery in Berlin, 1909-1933. Methodologically, Justi’s art history centers around the concept of “artist as hero” (Heldengeschichte). A major historian of the Gründerzeit (foundational era of modern Germany), he, like Herman Grimm, rejected an art history constructed around art movements or Hegelian philosophy, favoring instead biography. This view contrasts the positivism of scholars such as Hippolyte Taine or the cultural history or Karl Lamprecht. In affirming Gründerzeit values, he, along with Jacob Burckhardt, disapproved of contemporary art. His study of Michelangelo employs psychology to understand the artist. His Spanish-artist studies helped establish the link, if unwittingly, between Impressionism and the work of baroque artists. Udo Kulterman cites Justi’s identification of modernity (in the case of El Greco) with degeneration (“Entartung”). In the nineteenth century this had the effect of pushing the notoriously conservative Kaiser Wilhelm II’s opinion against modern art. It led to the belief in the twentieth century by the Nazi’s that German Expression was sick, manifested in the famous “Entartete Kunst” (degenerate art) exhibition. Justi had a great disdain for photographic reproductions in books or as study aids of any kind. He believed that machine-made images corrupted the eye and accused them of distorting the original object. Vöge, who studied with Justi four semesters beginning hin 1887, recalled him as “not a good teacher but a heavenly old bachelor, his study papered with books, a charming chamber of antiquities, milk jug, butter dish, ashtray, books and papers, old vases and other heirlooms mixed up in a wild carnival on his desk and cupboard.” Warburg, who studied with him during the same time, found him conservative, for example, Justi’s doubting that classical art had much effect on the Renaissance or his denying northern Renaissance painters such as Jan van Eyck as part of the Renaissance.


Selected Bibliography

[bibliography (academic articles only):] Willers, Heinrich, ed. Verzeichnis der bis zum 2. August 1912 erschienenen Schriften Carl Justis: Carl Justi zum achtzigsten Geburtstage dargebracht von Rektor und Senate der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn. Bonn: C. Georgi, 1912; [dissertation:] Die ästhetischen Elemente in der platonischen Philosophie: ein historisch-philosophischer Versuch. Marburg, 1859, published, Marburg: N. G. Elwert, 1860; Diego Velázquez und sein Jahrhundert. Bonn: M. Cohen, 1888, English, Diego Velázquez and His Times. London: H. Grevel, 1889; Michelangelo: Beiträge zur Erklärung der Werke und des Menschen. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1900; Winckelmann: sein Leben, Seine Werke und sein Zeitgenossen. 3 vols. Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1866-72; “Die Portugiesische Malerei der 16ten Jahrhunderts.” Jahrbuch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen 20; “Der Fall Cleve.” Jahrbuch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen 16 (1895): 13 – 33; Miscellaneen aus drei Jahrhunderts Spanischen Kunstleben. 2 vols. Berlin: G. Grote,1908; Briefe aus Italien. Bonn: Cohen 1922; Carl Justi/Otto Hartwig: Briefwechsel: 1858-1903. Leppla, Rupprecht, ed. Bonn: L. Röhrscheid, 1968; edited. Stosch, Philipp, Baron von. Antiquarische Briefe dis Baron Philipp von Stosch. Marburg: C. L. Pfeilii, 1871; [explanation of Justi’s forged Velázquez letter] Kunst-chronik: Beiblatt zur Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst 17 (February 23, 1906) p.246 (1905-06).


Sources

Kehrer, Hugo. Deutschland in Spanien. Beziehung, Einfluss und Abhängigkeit. Munich: G. D. W. Callwey, 1953; [Vöge reminiscence] Panofsky, Erwin. “Wilhelm Vöge: A Biographical Memoir.” Art Journal 28 no. 1 (Fall 1968): 28-29; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, pp. 92, 25 n. 51; Dilly, Heinrich. Kunstgeschichte als Institution: Studien zur Geschichte einer Diziplin. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1979, p. 22; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Research Guide to the History of Western Art. Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, pp. 89, 147 mentioned; Bazin, Germain. Histoire de l’histoire de l’art: de Vasari à nos jours. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, pp. 447, 531; Gombrich, Ernst H. Aby Warburg: An Intellectual Biography. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986, pp. 26-28; German Essays on Art History. Gert Schiff, ed. New York: Continuum, 1988, p. lii mentioned; Metzler Kunsthistoriker Lexikon: zweihundert Porträts deutschsprachiger Autoren aus vier Jahrhunderten. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1999, pp. 197-199.




Citation

"Justi, Carl Nicolaus Heinrich." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/justic/.


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Scholar of Spanish, Portuguese and Italian Renaissance painting; employed a biographical approach to art history. Justi was the son of a pastor. From 1850 he studied theology in Marburg before switching to philosophy in Berlin. His interest was al

Jongh, Eddy de

Full Name: Jongh, Eddy de

Gender: male

Date Born: unknown

Date Died: unknown

Home Country/ies: Netherlands

Subject Area(s): iconography


Overview

One of the chief exponents of the iconographic interpretation of Dutch art emphasizing particularly that many seventeenth-century Dutch genre paintings were intended to have symbolic or emblematic meaning (Simiolus, 1968).


Selected Bibliography

and Luijten, Ger. Mirror of Everyday Life: Genreprints in the Netherlands, 1550-1700. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1997; “Erotica in vogelperspectief.” Simiolus 3 (1968): 22-72.


Sources

Burke, Peter. “Introduction: Carlo Ginzburg, Detective.” The Enigma of Piero: Piero della Francesca. London: Verso, 1985, p. 3.




Citation

"Jongh, Eddy de." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/jonghe/.


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One of the chief exponents of the iconographic interpretation of Dutch art emphasizing particularly that many seventeenth-century Dutch genre paintings were intended to have symbolic or emblematic meaning (Simiolus, 1968).

Jordan, Max

Image Credit: ArchInForm

Full Name: Jordan, Max

Gender: male

Date Born: 1837

Date Died: 1906

Place Born: Dresden, Saxony, Germany

Place Died: Berlin, Germany

Home Country/ies: Germany

Subject Area(s): German (culture, style, period)

Career(s): curators


Overview

Early German curator, developed some of the principal collections which later became the National Gallery in Berlin.



Sources

Metzler Kunsthistoriker Lexikon: zweihundert Porträts deutschsprachiger Autoren aus vier Jahrhunderten. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1999, pp. 195-7.




Citation

"Jordan, Max." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/jordanm/.


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Early German curator, developed some of the principal collections which later became the National Gallery in Berlin.

Jordy, William H.

Image Credit: "Symbolic Essence" and Other Writings on Modern Architecture and American Culture

Full Name: Jordy, William Henry

Other Names:

  • William Henry Jordy

Gender: male

Date Born: 1917

Date Died: 1997

Place Born: Poughkeepsie, Dutchess, NY, USA

Place Died: Riverside, RI, USA

Home Country/ies: United States

Subject Area(s): American (North American), architecture (object genre), and sculpture (visual works)


Overview

Americanist architectural historian. Jordy was the son of Elwood Benjamin and Caroline May Hill (Jordy). He graduated from Bard College with a B.A. in 1939. After attending New York University between 1939 and 1941, he married Sarah Stoughton Spock in 1942 and entered the U. S. Army serving in the infantry in World War II from 1942-1945. He completed his Ph.D. at Yale University in 1947, writing his disseration on Henry Adams. He joinied the faculty at Yale as an assistant professor in 1948. In 1952 his Henry Adams: Scientific Historian was published. A Guggenheim Fellowship allowed Jordy to travel in Europe during 1953, he returned to find his position in the history of art department usurped by the dominant architectural historian at Yale, Vincent Scully, Jr. “I was on a collision course with Scully,” he remarked. In 1955 he moved to Brown University as an assistant professor, advancing to associate professor the following year and becoming full professor in 1960. He co-edited with Ralph Coe an anthology of the writings of the architecture critic Montgomery Schuyler (1961). Jordy was director of the Society of Architectural Historians from 1960 to 1963 and again, (1965-1968, 1978-1980). He chaired the department from 1963 until 1966, and again between 1976 and 1977. His two volumes in the series “American Buildings and Their Architects” appeared in 1972. He was Henry Ledyard Goddard professor and later emeritus professor of art history. He suffered a heart attack while swimming in his pool at his Rhode Island home and died at age 79.

Jordy was one of the first historians to chronicle the rise of modern architecture in the United States, charting the impact of international-style architects of Marcel Breuer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe on American design and education in the postwar years. He was long affiliated with Columbia University’s Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture. Jordy refrained from the polarizing arguments such as classical versus gothic (or organic) as advanced by Lewis Mumford, allowing him to address order, aestheticism and naturalism in architecture. As critic, he promoted formalism over functionalism, in for example, his analysis of the Seagram building (1958), demonstrating the inadequacies of the building and energy efficiency. In his article “The Symbolic Essence of European Modern Architecture of the Twenties and Its Continuing Influence” (1963), Jordy defended modernism (over post-modernism), citing its “symbolic objectivity.” Jordy objected to Scully’s 1961 book Architecture of Democracy, a brusquely dismissive treatment of modern architecture and Robert Venturi’s 1966 Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, which Scully had unabashedly called second in importance only to Le Corbusier’s Vers une Architecture (1923). For Jordy’s symbolic objectivity, the “non-human realms of weather, minerals, plants, animals, microbes, galaxies, existences of all sorts” were more important for architecture than semiotics or Freudian theory.


Selected Bibliography

  • [dissertation:] Henry Adams: Science and Power in History, a Study in the Historical Temperament, Yale University, 1947, revised and published as Henry Adams: Scientific Historian. New Haven,CT: Yale University Press, 1952; “PSFS: Its Development and Its Significance in Modern Architecture.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 21 (1962): 47-83; [volumes 3 and 4] Pierson, William Harvey. American Buildings and their Architects. 5 vols. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1970 ff.

Sources

  • Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 84; Jackson, Neil. “The Duckman Proves Triumphant.” Building Design, July 22, 2005, p. 20
  • [obituaries:] Muschamp, Herbert. “William H. Jordy, 79, Architectural Historian.” New York Times, August 18, 1997, p. B 8; Bacon, Mardges. “Introduction.” in, “Symbolic Essence” and Other Writings on Modern Architecture and American Culture.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 1-52.


Contributors: Lee Sorensen


Citation

Lee Sorensen. "Jordy, William H.." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/jordyw/.


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Americanist architectural historian. Jordy was the son of Elwood Benjamin and Caroline May Hill (Jordy). He graduated from Bard College with a B.A. in 1939. After attending New York University between 1939 and 1941, he married Sarah Stoughton Spoc

Jourdain, Margaret

Image Credit: Elisa Rolle

Full Name: Jourdain, Margaret

Gender: female

Date Born: unknown

Date Died: 1951

Place Born: Ashbourne, Derbyshire, England, UK

Place Died: London, Greater London, England, UK

Home Country/ies: United Kingdom

Subject Area(s): decorative art (art genre), decorative arts (discipline), eighteenth century (dates CE), English (culture or style), and furniture


Overview

Scholar of eighteenth-century English furniture and decorative arts. Jourdain was the daughter of an impoverished cleric, Reverend Francis Jourdain of Ashburne, Derbyshire. She and her sister, Eleanor, were required to be independent and on their own early in life. Eleanor became principal of a girl’s school and then St. Hugh’s College, Oxford. Margaret supported herself throughout her life by writing on art. In 1908, Jourdain came to the rescue of a former pupil of her sister’s boarding school, Joan Evans. Jourdain urged Evans to bury the girl’s grief and lack of self-confidence by writing a history of English jewelry, which not only built the woman’s self esteem, but launched Evans on a career as a private art historian. Jourdain appears to have written the text for The Decoration and Furniture of English Mansions During the Seventeenth & Eighteenth Centuries, 1909, ostensibly by Francis Henry Lenygon (1877-1943). Jourdain began writing articles for Country Life, Apollo and the Burlington Magazine on decorative arts in the 1920s. Her first book under her own name, English Decoration and Furniture of the Later XVIIIth Century (1760-1820), appeared in 1922. She produced other volumes in the series. A close professional association developed between her and Victoria and Albert curator John Charles Rogers. When Margaret’s estranged sister, Eleanor, died and left some symbolic possessions to Evans, Margaret took personal offense and never spoke with Evans again. A year before her death she both revised Roger’s 1923 book, English Furniture and co-published with British Museum curator R. Soame Jenyns (1904-1976) Chinese Export Art in the Eighteenth Century. She died after a brief illness at her home. Jourdain was not formally trained in art history. Her works show a keen attention to detail. Jourdain’s furniture books were some of the first to describe construction methods of eighteenth-century makers.


Selected Bibliography

[ghostwriter for] Lenygon, Francis Henry. The Decoration and Furniture of English Mansions During the Seventeenth & Eighteenth Centuries. London: T. Werner Laurie, 1909; English Decoration & Furniture of the XVIth-XIXth Centuries (series) [Library of Decorative Art]: English Decoration and Furniture of the Later XVIIIth Century (1760-1820): an Account of its Development and Characteristic Forms. London: B. T. Batsford, 1922; English Decoration and Furniture of the Early Renaissance (1500-1650): an Account of its Development and Characteristic Forms. London: B. T. Batsford, 1924; and Edwards, Ralph. Georgian Cabinet-makers. London: Country Life Limited, 1944; The Work of William Kent, Artist, Painter, Designer and Landscape Gardener. London: Country Life, 1948; (revised) Rogers, John Charles. English Furniture. London: Country Life, 1950; and Jenyns, R. Soame. Chinese Export Art in the Eighteenth Century. London: Country Life, 1950.


Sources

Coldstream, Nicola. “Joan Evans (1893-1977): Art Historian and Antiquary.” in, Chance, Jane, ed. Women Medievalists in the Academy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005, pp. 402-404; [obituaries:] Ralph Edwards. “Margaret Jourdain.” Burlington Magazine 93, no. 580 (July 1951): 239; “Miss M. Jourdain.” Times (London) April 7, 1951, p. 8; “Margaret Jourdain.” Apollo 53 (May 1951): 143.




Citation

"Jourdain, Margaret." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/jourdainm/.


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Scholar of eighteenth-century English furniture and decorative arts. Jourdain was the daughter of an impoverished cleric, Reverend Francis Jourdain of Ashburne, Derbyshire. She and her sister, Eleanor, were required to be independent and on their

Jucker, Hans

Full Name: Jucker, Hans

Gender: male

Date Born: 1918

Date Died: 1984

Place Born: Mogelsburg, Switzerland

Place Died: Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Home Country/ies: Switzerland

Subject Area(s): Antique, the, Classical, and Roman (ancient Italian culture or period)


Overview

Specialist in classical Roman art. First recipient of the Schweizer Institut in Rome (Swiss Institute in Rome) fellowship in 1946. Professor at the University of Bern 1957-. Jucker and Giovanni Becatti were among the first to show the extent Roman art was indebted to Greek artists for the late Republic and early empire.


Selected Bibliography

Das Bildnis im Blätterkelch – Geschichte und Bedeutung einer römischen Porträtform. 1961.


Sources

Archäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiographien von Klassichen Archäologen deutscher Sprache. Reinhard Lullies, ed. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1988: 323-324; Brilliant, Richard. “Introduction.” Roman Art: from the Republic to Constantine. New York: Phaidon, 1974, p. 16, mentioned.




Citation

"Jucker, Hans." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/juckerh/.


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Specialist in classical Roman art. First recipient of the Schweizer Institut in Rome (Swiss Institute in Rome) fellowship in 1946. Professor at the University of Bern 1957-. Jucker and Giovanni Becatti were among the first

Judson, J. Richard

Full Name: Judson, J. Richard

Other Names:

  • Jay Richard Judson
  • J. R. Judson

Gender: male

Date Born: 5 July 1925

Date Died: 29 June 2020

Place Born: Long Island, NY, USANew York, NY, USA [Long Island]

Home Country/ies: United States

Subject Area(s): Baroque, Dutch (culture or style), Dutch Golden Age, and Netherlandish Renaissance-Baroque styles

Career(s): art historians and educators

Institution(s): Dartmouth


Overview

First generation of American-born scholars of the Dutch Baroque; authority of Honthorst, Rembrandt, and Rubens. Born in Long Island, NY, Judson was the son of Bernard Judson and Sylvia Siegl (Judson). After graduating from Horace Mann School in 1943, Judson served with the United States Naval Reserve during WWII. Following his military service, he pursued a history degree at Oberlin College, where he studied under Wolfgang Stechow, forming a significant mentor-mentee relationship. Judson earned a B.A. from Oberlin in 1948 and an M.A. in art history from the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University in 1953. At the Institute, he was taught by prominent scholars including Craig Hugh Smyth, Walter Friedländer, and Erwin Panofsky. His master’s thesis about Italian sources of Honthorst was written under the guidance of Walter Friedländer. In 1953, Judson married Caroline French, who also pursued a career in art history.

Pursuing his interest in Dutch art, Judson attended the Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, later Universiteit Utrecht (University of Utrecht), the Netherlands, for his Ph.D. under a United States Board of Foreign Scholarships grant. Inspired and overseen by J. G. van Gelder, Judson’s dissertation on Gerrit van Honthorst expanded upon his master’s thesis and later became the subject of his first book (1959). Gerrit van Honthorst. A Discussion of His Position in Dutch Art (1959) was a monograph that eliminates Honthorst’s portraits produced in his late period, which is believed to be less important than his allegorical and historical paintings (Stechow). Upon graduation, he joined Smith College as an assistant professor (1956-1962), later becoming an associate professor (1962-1967) and professor (1967-1974). He also served as a visiting associate professor at Columbia University (1966-1967).

In 1970, he published a notable book, Dirck Barendsz. 1534-1592: Excellent Painter from Amsterdam, followed by The Drawings of Jacob de Gheyn II in 1973. In 1974, he joined UNC Chapel Hill as a W. R. Kenan Jr. Professor. In 1977, he received the Rubens Medal from the City of Antwerp for his contributions to Dutch art history. His first volume for the Corpus Rubenianum, Book Illustrations and Title-pages, was published in 1978 and led to an exhibition at the Museum Plantin-Moretus in Antwerp. After retiring, Judson and his wife Caroline moved to New Hampshire, where he lectured at Dartmouth until his death. In 1999, he collaborated with Rudolf E. O. Ekkart on Gerrit van Honthorst, 1592-1656, discussing exclusively on Honthorst’s portraitures, which complemented his monograph on Honthorst. His second book in the Rubens series, Rubens, the Passion of Christ, was published in 2000. Judson passed away in New Hampshire in 2020.

Judson was a member of the first generation of American-born scholars who worked on Dutch art, an author of several monographs on Dutch and Flemish art, and an acknowledged expert on Gerrit van Honthorst, Rembrandt van Rijn, and Peter Paul Rubens. Judson’s interest in cultural exchange between Italy and the Netherlands was evident in the exhibitions he curated in Milan (1951), Antwerp (1952), and Utrecht (1952), likely influenced by his mentor, Walter Friedländer (Nicolson). This focus is also reflected in his scholarly work, Gerrit van Honthorst: A Discussion of His Position in Dutch Art, where he dedicated an entire chapter, “Honthorst in Italy,” to examining the influence of Caravaggism on Honthorst.

During his career, he received fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), Fulbright, Guggenheim (1960), the American Academy of Rome, and the Institute for Advanced Studies at Wassenaar in the Netherlands (1986). He was also a member of the Historians of Netherlandish Art and the College Art Association of America from 1951.

Beyond his scholarly achievements, Judson was revered as a devoted educator who continued to teach even after his retirement. One of his students at UNC, Jane Carroll, recalled, “Jud believed in the primacy of the object. Art could be enhanced by cultural information, but the object itself had things to tell … He allowed the art to have a voice and taught us to listen to it.”


Selected Bibliography

  • [dissertation]: ​​Gerrit van Honthorst. A discussion of his position in Dutch art. Springer Science+ Business Media Dordrecht, 1956.
  • ​​Gerrit van Honthorst. A discussion of his position in Dutch art. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff,1959
  • Dirck Barendsz. 1534-1592: Excellent Painter from Amsterdam. Ghent: Van Gendt, 1970.
  • The Drawings of Jacob de Gheyn II. Grossman Publishers, 1973.
  • [and] Carl Van de Velde, Book Illustrations and Title-pages. Philadelphia : Harvey Miller-Heyden & Son, c1978.
  • and Rudolf E. O. Ekkart. Gerrit van Honthorst, 1592-1656. Davaco, 1999
  • Rubens, the Passion of Christ. Harvey Miller, c2000.

Sources



Contributors: Lee Sorensen


Citation

Lee Sorensen. "Judson, J. Richard." Dictionary of Art Historians (website). https://arthistorians.info/judsonj/.


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First generation of American-born scholars of the Dutch Baroque; authority of Honthorst, Rembrandt, and Rubens.