Entries tagged with "Munich, Germany"

Private art scholar and dealer of ancient Greek sculpture and portraits. Son of an affluent merchant in Mecklenburg, Arndt studied classical art with Johannes Overbeck in Leipzig and Enrico Brunn in Munich. His dissertation, written under Brunn, focused on Greek vase types. He never attempted a habilitationschrift. Brunn took Arndt for his assistant. Because of his financial independence, Arndt could afford to remain a private scholar.

German specialist in Asian art history, including East Asian, Southeast Asian, and Indian art and sculpture. Bachhofer began his studies in 1916 before a tour of service as a soldier in the First World War. He returned to his studies in 1918 in Munich studying art  history (under Heinrich Wölfflin, archaeology, philosophy and ethnography of Asia under Lucian Scherman (1864-1946). He completed a dissertation on Japanese woodcuts under these men (whom it is unclear).

Connoisseur and art critic, co-founder of the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florence. Bayersdorfer initially studied medicine before moving to Munich in 1853 and switching to the humanities. Beginning in 1862 he studied philosophy, art history as well as economics, never attaining a degree in any of these fields. In 1870 he became noted as a journalist and chess player. In the following years he wrote for the theatre reviews for the newspapers of Vienna and Munich, including Richard Wagner's Die Meistersinger and Die Walküre, 1868/70.

Medievalist art historian and professor; wrote on phenomenology. Bernheimer was born into a prominent family of art dealers, Bernheimer of Munich. In the early 20th century, the firm was one of the most important dealerships in precious materials, antiquities, Gobelins and oriental carpets.

Specialist in classical Greek and Roman art, particularly known for his focused interpretations and histories of single works of art. Forced to leave his university studies in 1935 because of the Jewish heritage of his father, but remained in Germany and survived a forced labor camp (Organization Todt) in France to return to Germany and resume his studies. After finishing his habilitation in 1947, began teaching at the University of Greifswald where he advanced to the rank of full professor in 1959.

Medievalist architectural historian. Braunfels' father was the composer Walter Braunfels (1882-1954) and his uncle was the sculptor and theorist Adolf von Hildebrand (1847-1921). Braunfels studied art history and literature history at the universities of Cologne, Paris (under Henri Focillon, Florence and finally in Bonn at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. At Bonn he studied art history under Paul Clemen and literature history the eminent philologist Ernst Robert Curtius (1886-1956).

Artist and professor of art history at the Universities of Heidelberg, Strasbourg, and Munich; exponent of 20th-century art and founder of the modern art-historical encyclopedia. Burger was the son of a banker. He started architectural studies in 1896 in Munich, but cut them short for enrollment in the military the following year. From 1900 onward, he studied art history in Heidelberg. The new art movement of Darmstadt became the subject of his first publication in 1902. He married the daughter of the Heidelberg classicist Friedrich von Duhn the same year.

Classical archaeologist; one of the first to identify the critical turn in ancient Greek art from the archaic to the classical age as taking place around 500 B.C. Buschor was born into a family of modest means and education. He initially studied law but by 1905 had switched to classical archaeology, attending the university at Munich and studying under Adolf Furtwängler, to whom he was devoted.

Drawings scholar, especially of the Italian Renaissance; Pisanello expert. Degenhart's father was a high school (Gymnasium) teacher. Degenhart began his dissertation work in 1931 at the University in Munich, researching Lorenzo di Credi under August Liebmann Mayer. Mayer, a Jew, was denounced by many in Munich, including Degenhart, and after Mayer's dismissal, he completed his dissertation under Wilhelm Pinder.

First director of the Alte Pinakothek and advisor to Ludwig I of Bavaria. Dillis was the son Wolfgang Dillis, the Elector Maximillian's head forester, as well as godchild of Maximilian III Joseph, Electoral Prince of Bavaria. Dillis attended the Gymnasium in Munich, paid for by the royal family. He initially studied theology in Ingolstadt, but by 1782 entered the Munich Zeichnungsakademie where he studied under Ignaz Oefele (1721-97) and Johann Jakob Dorner the elder. Dillis excelled at landscapes and took a number of important early commissions.

University of Munich painting professor and authority on historic paints and painting material. Dörner was the son of an army officier. He studied at the Bavarian royal academy under Johann Kaspar Herterich (1843-1905) and Wilhelm von Diez (1837-1907). He took an extended Italian study under the painters Arnold Böcklin and Hans von Marees and studied Pompeiian wall painting.

Scholar of Italian Renaissance artists, especially Michelangelo. Dussler attended the university in Munich. He served as a soldier in World War I. Afterward, Dussler worked in the Bavarian State Museums. He received a scholarship from the German Institute in Florence, completing his habilitation in 1929, qualifying as a lecturer at the Technische Hochschule in Munich. He advanced to associate professor in 1934.

Curator, art critic, art historian, and educator. Enwezor was born as the youngest son of an Igbo family in Calabar, Nigeria. During the Biafran war of 1967-1970, he and his family were forced to move to the city of Enugu, Nigeria. In 1982, after finishing a semester at the University of Nigeria, Enwezor moved to the Bronx, in New York. In 1987 he earned a B.A. in political sciences at Jersey City State College, now New Jersey City University.

Fiedler studied at the Fürstenschule in Meissen and then law at the university in Heidelberg, Berlin and Leipzig between 1856 and 1861. He passed his states exam in 1865. After only briefly practicing, Fiedler used his private fortune to travel in Europe and the Middle East beginning in 1866. Italy remained his home base in these travels. There, he met the German master artists including Hans von Marées, whom he subsidized, Adolf Hildebrand, Arnold Bocklin, Anselm Freuerbach and later Franz von Lehnbach and Hans Thoma.

In 1852 he weighed in on the Hans Holbein Meyer Madonna controversy, praising the coherence of the Dresden version, which ultimately proved to be the copy.

Medevialist architectural historian. He was born in Danzig, Prussia which is present-day Gdańsk, Poland. Gall initially studied law before switching to art history and studying in Grenoble, Paris and ultimately Berlin under Adolph Goldschmidt. He served in World War I, during which time his dissertation, Neiderrheinische und normännische Architektur in Zeitalter der Frühgotik, appeared as a book in 1915.

Photography historian and photographer.  Gernsheim was born to Karl Gernsheim a literary historian at the University of Munich and Hermina Scholz (Gernsheim).  He completed his Abitur in 1933 and studied art history in Munich from 1933-1934. Despite his father’s conversion to Christianity, the younger Gersheim was forced to abandon his schooling when the Nazi government forbade those “non-Aryan descent” in universities.  Between 1934-1936 Gernsheim retrained to a more practical occupation, photography, at the State Institute for Photography in Munich, graduating with a journeyman's level.

Director, Essener Kunstmuseum 1909-1922, major exhibitor of German Expressionism. Between 1891 and 1896 Gosebruch studied philology in Munich, Geneva and Berlin. He taught as a private tutor until 1903 when he joined the the Essen museum as an unpaid assistant. During the same time he studied art history in Paris and Berlin, the latter venue under Heinrich Wölfflin. After a second undergraduate degree in art history in 1906, he was appointed in 1909 Director of Essen art museums, a diverse art collection.

Marxist art historian, Expressionism exponent and later detractor and post-war German diplomat. Hausenstein's parents were Wilhelm Hausenstein (senior) and Clara Baumann (Hausenstein) (d.1937). His father was a financial officer for the duchy of Baden. After graduating from the Gymnasium in Karlsruhe in 1900, he traveled in the typical German fashion between universities, Heidelberg, Tübingen and Munich studying philosophy, classical philology, history and economics--and heard the art history lectures of Karl Voll.

Specialist in Etruscan and classical Greek and Roman art, particularly architectural history, and large mosaics and paintings. Herbig was the son of Etruscan scholar Gustav Herbig (1868-1925). He was wounded while fighting in World War I. After the war he studied at the universities of Rostock, Breslau and finally Heidelberg, where he was awarded his degree. His dissertation was on windows in ancient architecture, Das Fenster in der Architektur des Altertums, granted in 1925 (published in 1929). He further studied during travels to Italy and Greece.

Scholar of Italian Renaissance and Baroque art, particularly interested in artist biographies. Hess came to art history late in life, studying the discipline beginning only in 1919 at age 34. He studied under Heinrich Wölfflin in Munich and in Vienna under literary historian Karl Vossler (1872-1949) and Vienna School art historians Max Dvořák and Julius Alwin von Schlosser.

Director of the Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich; historian of Italian renaissance architecture. Heydenreich grew up in Dresden in one of the city's prominent military families. He studied at Dresden's military academy and was expected, like his father, to join the officer class. But Germany's defeat in World War I forced the academy's closure and Heydenreich was forced to look for other areas of interest. He initially studied art history at the university in Berlin, but quickly changed to Hamburg in 1919 in order study with Erwin Panofsky.

Architectural historian, Director of the Philadelphia Museum of Art and Chair of the Department of Art, University of Virginia. Kimball's father was Edwin Fiske Kimball, a teacher, and mother Ellen Leora Ripley (Kimball). He was raised in the Boston area and received both his BA and MA in architecture from Harvard, 1909 and 1912, respectively. After a year of teaching architecture at the University of Illinois (1912-13), he moved to the University of Michigan to teach and complete his Ph.D. At Michigan Kimball produced two books.

Influential Harvard Byzantinist and medievalist art historian. Kitzinger's father, Wilhelm Nathan Kitzinger (1870-1945) was a Munich lawyer and his mother Elisabeth Rahel Merzbacher (1881-1966), a woman devoted to social causes connected with Judaism. Kitzinger's cousin, Richard Krautheimer would also become a distinguished medievalist in Europe and the United States. Kitzinger attended the Max-Gymnasium in Munich, graduating in 1931.

Specialist in the architecture of ancient Greece; founder of the discipline of archeological architectural history. Knackfuß hailed from an artistic family. His elder brothers were artists (and the oldest of his brothers, a writer of artistic biographies, Hermann Joseph Wilhelm Knackfuss). He studied architecture at Aachen beginning in 1901. Together with Theodor Wiegand he led the excavation of the Roman buildings of Miletus and Didyma through the auspices of the Royal Berlin Museums (Königliche Museen zu Berlin).