Ledoux and French Revolutionary architecture scholar. Kaufmann was the son of Max Kaufmann (d. 1902), businessman, and Friederike Baumwald (Kaufmann) (b. 1862). He was raised in Vienna, attending the Maximiliansgymnasium, 9th region of the city (IX Bezirk) along with the future Warburg School art historian Fritz Saxl. He received his Abitur in 1909 and entered the Exportakademie (literally, Export Academy), studying trade through 1911. Beginning in 1913 he attended lectures in the humanities at the Universities of Innsbruck and Vienna.