Museum director, Kassel, 1946-1961. Vogel was raised in Stettin, Germany where his father was a local merchant. After graduating from the humanistisches Gymnasium in Stettin in 1916, he entered the army in World War I where he was severely wounded. Upon recuperation in 1919 he studied political science, earning his first Ph.D. in 1923 from the university in Vienna. He entered studied thereafter in art history, attending lectures at Marburg under Richard Hamann and then Leipzig under Wilhelm Pinder.