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  • Numismatist and gem scholar. Agostini worked during the reign of Pope Urban VIII as the antiquarian to the Barberini family. His letters, written to the family while in exile (1646-50) today form a trove of information on the archaeological activity of the time. After the return of the Barberini, Agostini continued to collect for them, arranging their collection into one of the most comprehensible schemas of the time. He was appointed commissioner of collections under Pope Alexander VII, directing the excavations of the Roman Forum and baths near San Lorenzo in Panisperna.
  • Dramatist whose works helped bring about the re-evaluation of Michelangelo. Alfieri was born to a noble and wealthy family. His father was Count Antonio Alfieri and his mother Monica Maillard de Tournonthe marquis di Cacherano of Savoy. Count Alfieri died when Vittorio was less than one year old. His mother married a third husband, the cavalier Giacinto Alfieri de Magliano. Vittorio was privately tutored under Don Ivaldi, a priest whose education was poor enough to move him in 1758 to the Military Academy of Turin.
  • Photo-documentarian, early participant of the Fratelli Alinari photoarchive together with his brothers. The son of an engraver, Alinari grew up in a Florentine art family. His older brother, Leopoldo studied with engraver Luigi Bardi and learned the emerging art of photography.
  • Photo-documentarian, founder of the Fratelli Alinari together with his brothers. The son of an engraver, Alinari grew up in a Florentine art family. Leopoldo studied with engraver Luigi Bardi and learned the emerging art of photography while training in the 1840s. In 1852 he established a studio in the Via Nazionale in Florence.
  • Photo-documentarian, founder of the Anderson photoarchive. Born Isaac Atkinson, Anderson was raised in Cumberland, England and settled in Rome in 1838. His intention was to be a painter and, under the signature Nugent Dunbar, submitted several works to the exhibition of the Select Society, London, in 1839. In addition to his paintings and watercolors, he periodically sent back drawings for British newspapers. He switched to photography in 1853 after experimenting with the medium for a number of years.
  • Classical art scholar and director of the DAI, 1984-. Andreae graduated from the university at Marburg in 1956, where he studied under Friedrich Matz (der Jünger) (q.v.). His thesis focused on the iconography of patrimony in Roman sarcofagi. Between 1956 and 1959 he was assistant professor at the DAI or German archaeological Institute in Rome contributing frequently to the Archaeologische Anzeiger.
  • Modernist. Art historian of Bolognese and Emilian art from the fourteenth century to the contemporary; critic. Arcangeli was born to Adolfo and Maria Villani. He was one of four siblings, all of whom were creative. Gaetano was a poet and humanities professor, Nino was a musician, and Bianca was a painter.
  • Art critic and writer, collaborator with Vasari; his Letters form a proto-art history. Aretino's father was a shoemaker, known as Luca del Tura. Aretino himself trained both as a writer and an artist. After time in Venice and Siena, Aretino was in Rome by 1517 where he was attached to the household of Agostino Chigi (1466-1520). There he met Sebastiano del Piombo and Jacopo Sansovino, Raphael, and Michelangelo. He was briefly in the circle of Pope Leo X (1475-1521). Aretino was frequently associated with political tracts, satires and illustrated erotica.
  • Marxist art historian, professor at University of Rome 1959-1976; specialist in Italian art. Argan's father, Valerio Argan, was an administrator of a women's mental hospital and his mother, Libera Roncaroli, a primary school teacher. An uncle's subscription to the journal La Critica, founded by Benedetto Croce, introduced the ideas of that art philosopher to Argan at a young age. He attended the Liceo Classico Cavour in Turin where the classes of the young Giusta Nicco Fasola (1901-1960) instilled a passion for art.
  • After teaching at the universities of Bologna and Catania, Arias joined the department of archaeology at the University of Pisa in 1961. His survey of Greek vase painting, Mille anni di ceramica greca, published in 1960, was published in English, German and French. In 1968 he was appointed chair of the department.
  • Painter and first historian of the Roman Baroque through two early art histories, a biography of artists, Vite de' pittori, scultori, architetti (1642), and a survey of Roman churches, Le nove chiese di Roma (1639). Baglione described himself as having descended a noble family from Perugia. In his autobiography appended to his Lives of the Artists, Le vite, 1642, Baglione claimed as well that he studied art under the painter Francesco Morelli in Rome. He worked as a painter, employing a Caravaggesque style, and received numerous commissions.
  • Historian of the Italian Renaissance; headed restoration in Italy after Arno River flood, 1966. Baldini studied art history under Mario Salmi (q.v.) at the University of Florence. In the 1940's began working as a conservator in Florence. After the war, he was appointed a temporary worker in the restoration office in 1949, housed at the time in the loggia of the Uffizi. He rose to Uffizi conservation director, and, during the early morning hours of November 4, 1966, it fell to him to try and prevent the sudden flooding of the Arno River from pouring into the museum's storerooms.
  • Collector of drawings and connoisseur; worked on a universal history of art. An annotated translation of his life of Bernini was annotated and translated into German by the eminent Austrian art historian Alois Riegl (q.v.), published in 1912.
  • Wrote memoirs of artists; first published in 1905.
  • Etruscan specialist. Banti worked at the Vatican Library between 1930 and 1940 and on the excavations at Crete before her appointment to the University of Rome in the history of religions. In 1948 she was appointed chair of archaeology at the University of Pavia, moving two years later to Florence to teach Etruscan studies, 1950-65 [Archivio biografico italiano states 1954-74]. She also lectured at various American universities during this time. In 1965 she became director of the Istituto di Studi Etruschi, which she held until 1972.
  • Documentary architectural historian
  • Italian priest who wrote the first serious biographical account of artists of Ferrara, beginning in 1704, and other histories of art. Baruffaldi was the son of the collector and scholar Nicolò Baruffaldi (1645-1748). He initially attended the Jesuit seminary in Ferrara before studying under his father. He was ordained a priest, then a doctor of philosophy, joining the literary Colonia Ferrarese dell'Arcadia.
  • Art historian of classical art. Educated at the University of Rome under Ranuccio Bianchi Bandinelli (q.v.), Becatti was appointed to the Superintendency of Ostia in 1938 at a time when Mussolini sped up excavations in order to showcase them at the (unrealized) International Exposition in Rome. Becatti altered his publishing interests from Etruscan subjects to Roman Ostia as a result. He also contributed the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum volume on the museums of Duomo di Orvieto, Museo civico di Spoleto, Museo comunale di Terni, and the Museo comunale di Bettona.
  • Antiquarian, art theorist and biographer in the tradition of Vasari; Librarian to Queen Christina of Sweden, and curator for Pope Clement X. Bellori was raised by his uncle, the antiquarian Francesco Angeloni (1559-1652). He studied from Angeloni's private archaeological collection and drawings by Annibale Carracci, and painting (perhaps with Domenichino) though few artworks by Bellori are known. Bellori became Angeloni's heir at Angeloni's death in 1652. He assembled his own collection of paintings, including those by Titian, Tintoretto, [Annibale] Carracci, as well as coins and medals.
  • Historian of the trecento Italian Renaissance. Bellosi was the son of Enrico Bellosi and Maria Cuccuini (Bellosi). His father worked as a gardener and his mother in domestic service. The younger Bellosi attended the University of Florence where he wrote his dissertation under Roberto Longhi in 1963 on the trecento artist Lorenzo Monaco. After a year in the Italian military, 1963-1964, he worked under the Soprintendenza per I Beni Artistici e Storici di Firenze, 1969 to 1979. Bellosi was awarded the Premio Viareggio (award) in 1974.
  • Influential scholar of the Italian Renaissance employing connoisseurship; consultant to the major American museums and collectors in the early 20th century. Berenson was born to Albert (originally Alter) Valvrojenski and Julia (originally Eudice) Mickleshanski (Valvrojenski). His father emigrated to Boston from Lithuania with his family in 1875, changing their family name to "Berenson." Bernard Berenson was educated at the Latin School, Boston. A Jew by birth, he converted to Christianity and was baptized in 1885.
  • Wife of Bernard Berenson and scholar of Italian paintings. Mary Berenson was born Mary Smith to Robert Pearsall Smith (1827-1899), an evangelizing preacher and Hannah Whitall (Smith) (1832-1911), both of Quaker extraction. She was given the nick-name "Mariechen" (little Mary) by a German nursemaid. She attended Smith College and Harvard Annex (later Radcliffe College). At Harvard Annex she met the Scots-Irish Benjamin Francis Conn "Frank" Costelloe (1855-1899). The future barrister and political reformer and Smith married in 1885. The couple lived in England where they had two children.
  • His La Madonna di Santa Maria in Trastevere redated a pivotal panel of painting in the church from the sixth to the eighth century, arguing against the dating of Cesare Brandi (q.v.). Brandi's date has subsequently proven correct.
  • Mannerism; Renaissance Italy; studied the studiolo of Francesco I, Grand-Duke of Tuscany.
  • notes about Bertini Calosso's opinions on Giotto appear in Richard Offner's annotated catalog of the 1937 Mostra Giottesca.
  • Marxist art historian of Roman art. Bianchi Bandinelli was descended from ancient aristocracy in Siena. His father, Mario Bianchi Bandinelli (1859-1930), was a one-time mayor of Siena and land baron whose forebears included Pope Alexander III (served 1159-1181). His mother, Margherita Ottilie "Lily" von Korn (Bianchi Bandinelli) (1878-1905) was German from minor noble lineage. He attended the liceo Guicciardini in Siena before entering the University in Rome in 1918, studying archaeology. His early research focused on the Etruscan centers close to his family lands.
  • Early developer of cat. rais. for antiquity.

  • doctor, scientist, scholar, art historian; purchased Raphael's Sistine Madonna (c. 1512-14), in 1753 for the Dresden Gemäldegalerie, wrote important monographs on Piranesi (1779), Mengs ( 1780) and antiquarian work, Descrizione dei circhi particolarmente di quello di Caracalla (1789).
  • Artists' biographies (basically Florentine) 1530.
  • 1549 book, narrative history of painting.
  • Quattrocentist art historian. In 1954 he organized, in collaboration with his friend Raffaello Causa (q.v.) launched the original exposition "Scultura lignea" and the important catalog, Sculture lignee nella Campania.
  • Author of Vite dei pittori ed artefici bolognesi, (1841-3), modernist revision of Bolognese artists dictionary.
  • Archaeologist; wrote works on Column of Trajan and decorative art. Boni was orphaned early and attended a commercial school in Venice. At nineteen, he assisted in the Doge's Palace restoration, but quarreled with the superintendent of the project, Forcinelli, over the restoration. This led to a crusade against over-zealous restoration. In the course of these activities, he corresponded with John Ruskin (q.v.) and William Morris (1834-1896). He entered the Venice Academy, studying architecture. In 1885 he became a corresponding member of the Royal Institute of British Architects.
  • Medievalist art historian. Together with André Grabar (q.v.) his work documented how the dehumanized styles of late Roman Constantinian art led directly to to the spiritualized de-corporal images of the middle ages.
  • Wrote the celebrated, Il riposo di Raffaele Borghini in cui della pittura e della scultura si favella, de' più famose opere loro si fa menzione, e le cose principali appartenenti a dette arti s' insegnano in 1584. The fourth section contains important information on the artistic and cultural world of Florence. Borghini relied mainly on Vasari, and is considered Vasari's successor.
  • Scholar of Renaissance art at the Center for Italian Renaissance Studies, Harvard. Borsook was the daughter of Henry Borsook (1897-1984), a renowned biochemist, and Lisl Hummel (Borsook). The year she was born, her father joined the Department of Biology at California Institute of Technology. She attended Vassar College, receiving her B.A in art history in 1949.  The same year, Borsook won a competition given by Harper's Bazaar (magazine) the same year and entered New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, as a graduate student.

  • Leading Venetian writer on art in the seventeenth century; wrote a patriotic and polemical defense of Venetian painting, La carta del navegar pittoresco, (The Map of Painting's Journey), 1660). Le ricche miniere della pittura veneziana, 1674, (The Rich Mines of Venetian Painting). Boschini writing, like Ridolfi's, countered Vasari's claims that Florence was the birthplace of Renaissance art. However, Boschini's books were more orderly and well-thought-out than Ridolfi's.
  • Del Cenacolo di Leonardo da Vinci, 1810; secretary to the Accademia di Brera, 1801-1807. He was responsible for their inclusion in the Pinacoteca di Brera, his most famous acquisitions include Raphael's Marriage of the Virgin (1504) and the Virgin and Child by Giovanni Bellini (1460).
  • Wrote a new edition of Il riposo di Raffaele Borghini in cui della pittura e della scultura si favella (1730) of Raffaele Borghini (q.v.) and wrote the Dialoghi sopra le tre arti del disegno, published 1754.
  • Leader of modern museum conservation practices; historian of Italian art. Brandi graduated in with a law degree from the University of Siena in 1927, but his interests had moved to art so much that he wrote a thesis the following year at the University of Florence on the artists Rutilio Manetti, Francesco Vanni, and Ventura Salimbeni. In 1930 he was assigned to the Administration of Antiquities and the Fine Arts to assist the Inspector (Soprintendenza) of Monuments and Galleries of Siena.
  • Archaeologist and art historian of Etruscan and prehistory. Brizio studied and excavated at the sites of Pompeii and the Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) in Rome. His association with Heinrich ("Enrico") von Brunn (q.v.) at the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) taught him formal analysis of Greek art, the basis for his later art history. He traveled to Greece in 1874. In 1876 he was named chair at the University of Bologna for archaeology and numismatics. His lectures exposed his students to the German stylistic analysis.
  • Curator and Director of the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna di Roma, (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) 1942-1975; first woman art museum director in Italy. Bucarelli studied art history at the University of Rome under Adolfo Venturi (q.v.) and Pietro Toesca (q.v.). After graduation, she joined the department of Antiquities and Fine Arts, part of the Ministry of Education. She remained at the department as fascism overtook Italy. At the height of World War II, she assumed the directorship of the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome, in 1942.
  • semiotics and art history

  • Author of Notizie sulla vita, 1859-1869, the first great history of Milanese art of the 14th to the 16th century; largely established the canon of early Milanese artists.
  • Italian documentary historian, architectural historian and art biographer. In the 1850's he assisted G. B. Cavalcaselle (q.v.) in his abortive attempts to issue a documentary version of Vasari's Vite.
  • Professor of art history, University of Pisa in 1940-1973 and Director of the Pinacoteca, Siena, 1952-1973. Carli was born to Plinio Carli, a university professor, and Else Onetti (Carli). He studied at the University of Pisa, first under Mario Salmi (q.v.) and then Matteo Marangoni (q.v.), receiving a B.Litt., in 1927. He married Tina Zanni in 1938. Carli was appointed professor of art history ("professore universitario di storia dell'arte medievale e moderna") at the University of Pisa in 1940, where he remained for most of his career.
  • Founder of Arte e storia, a weekly (later monthly) journal beginning 1882 and director, Museo di S Marco (1892, officially 1909-1916).
  • The Coutier (1527) describes artists