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  • Psychiatrist and disciple of Freud; earliest scholar to employ psycho-analytic method to an artist (Giovanni Segantini). Abraham was born into a wealthy, cultured, Jewish family. His father, Nathan Abraham, initially a Hebrew religion teacher, and his mother were first cousins. Karl Abraham rejected religion early in his life. His early interests in philology and linguistics lead to a life-long interest in humanities. After homeschooling, he entered medical school in 1896 at the universities in Würzburg, Berlin and finally Freiburg im Breisgau.
  • Early friend and exponent of German Expressionist artists, taught art history at the Bauhaus. Adler was born to Therese (née Hirsch) and Mortiz Adler, both of Jewish descent. Adler’s father was a theater critic and socialist. Adler lived in Munich from 1917 onward, where he wrote his dissertation at that university the same year.  His topic was the early development of the woodcut. In Munich he became familiar with the Blauen Reiter artists group and for whom he worked.

  • Architectural historian, architect and archaeologist; specialist in ancient excavations, and medieval German architecture. Adler attended the Berlin Kunstakademie beginning in 1841. In 1846 he continued at the University of Berlin (Bauakademie). From 1854 he taught there under Ferdinand von Arnim (1814-1856) and from 1859 as a Dozent for the history of architecture. He was made professor at the Akademie in 1861 succeeding in the position previously held by Wilhelm Lübke (q.v.).
  • Specialist in classical Greek and Roman art. Alscher studied under Ernst Buschor (q.v.) at Munich, and was charged with reorganizing the Archaeological Institute at the University of Jena after World War II in 1945. In 1951, he moved to a professorship at the Humboldt University in (East) Berlin, where he was named an ordentliche (full) Professor in 1953. Published a four-volume history of the development of Greek sculpture, that was influenced by his training in the analysis of forms.
  • Specialist in ancient Greek sculpture; director and rebuilder of the German Archaeological Institute in Rome after World War I, 1921-1927. Amelung's father was a successful insurance executive and his mother an actress. The younger Amelung studied under the classicist Erwin Rohde (1845-98) in Tübingen and briefly under Johannes Overbeck (q.v.) at Leipzig, before settling in Munich to write his dissertation under Heinrich Brunn (q.v.). His dissertation was on the personification of nature in Hellenistic vase painting.
  • Compiler of famous nineteenth-century catalogs of artist and monogram. His unpublished Lexikon der Nürnberger Künstler inspired the work of Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker for their 37-volume work of the twentieth century.
  • Private art scholar and dealer of ancient Greek sculpture and portraits. Son of an affluent merchant in Mecklenburg, Arndt studied classical art with Johann Overbeck (q.v.) in Leipzig and Hermann Brunn (q.v.) in Munich. His dissertation, written under Brunn, focused on Greek vase types. He never attempted a habilitationschrift. Brunn took Arndt for his assistant. Because of his financial independence, Arndt could afford to remain a private scholar. Through his excellent library and nearly unfailing eye, Arndt developed a reputation for recognizing forgeries.

  • Philosopher of perception and art; used Gestalt psychology for his art-historical studies. Arnheim was the son of Georg Arnheim (1867-1944), a piano factory owner, and Betty Gutherz (Arnheim) (1879-1966). He was raised in Berlin, attending the Herdergymnasium (Abitur 1923). His parents intended him to assume the family business, but beginning in 1923 Arnheim, studied art and music history, philosophy and psychology at the University of Berlin with Gestalt-based scholars Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967) and Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). His Ph.D.
  • Artist and art historian. Auerbach grew up in an educated Jewish family in Frankfurt. Her mother was the painter, Emma Kehrmann (1867-1958). She studied art history between 1917-24 at the universities in Frankfurt, Bonn and Munich, under Rudolf Kautzsch (q.v.) and Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v.). Her 1925 Frankfurt dissertation, under Kautzsch, focused on 16th-century German portraiture in Franken, Schwaben and Bavaria. She taught at Frankfurter Volksbildungsheim (1925-33).
  • Art historian of Italian renaissance. Auerbach studied art history in Hamburg with the so-called Hamburg School art historians Charles de Tolnay (q.v.), Fritz Saxl (q.v.), Aby Warburg (q.v.) and Erwin Panofsky (q.v.). She wrote her dissertation under Panofsky on Andrea del Sarto in 1932. She married one of the first Bauhaus school students, the sculptor and graphic artist Johannes Auerbach (changed to John Allenby in England,1900-1950) and immigrated to England in 1938.
  • German specialist in Asian art history, including East Asian, Southeast Asian, and Indian art and sculpture. Bachhofer began his studies in 1916 before a tour of service as a soldier in the First World War. He returned to his studies in 1918 in Munich studying art  history (under Heinrich Wölfflin, archaeology, philosophy and ethnography of Asia under Lucian Scherman (1864-1946). He completed a dissertation on Japanese woodcuts under these men (whom it is unclear).

  • Professor of law who converted to archaeology in mid-life. Specialized in funerary art and the archaeology of grave sites.
  • Private scholar; art historian of the baroque and modern periods; methodological theorist. Badt was born to a prosperous Banking family in Berlin. His father, Leopold Badt (1858-1929) raised his children in a rarefied cultural atmosphere, giving them every opportunity to experience art. The younger Badt attended the Berlin-Charlottenburg Reformgymnasium, graduating in 1906. Between 1909-1914 he studied art history and philosophy at the universities of Berlin, Munich and finally at Freiburg (im Breisgau) under Wilhelm Vöge.
  • Medievalist architectural historian whose influential book on architectural type significance and reception influenced post-war generation of medievalists. Bandmann grew up in Essen. He studied art history at the University in Cologne, inspired by the modern art which had been at the Folkwang Museum there until purged by the Nazis in 1933. Bandmann's dissertation written under Hans Kauffmann in 1942 focused on the abbey church of Essen-Werden.
  • Director of the Städtische Kunstsammlungen Breslau (Municipal Art Collections Breslau) and Nazi art ideologue. After the German attack on Poland in 1939, Barthel collaborated with the head Nazi art plundering in Poland, Kajetan Mühlmann (q.v.) to write Nazi-ideological books on Polish culture, making the argument that Poland was really part of Germany. During the Third Reich years, Barthel participated in art looting in Poland and co-authored the catalogue "Secured Works of Art in the General Government" that listed cultural assets that had been confiscated in Poland.
  • Rembrandt scholar and professor of art history, Freiburg. The son of a Mecklenburg judge, Bauch served as cadet and a second lieutenant in the imperial navy, 1916-18. After a 1919-21 volontariat at the Schweriner Museum in Rostock, Germany, under Albert Erich Brinckmann (q.v), Bauch studied art history at the universities in Berlin, under Adolph Goldschmidt (q.v) and Munich, under Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v).
  • Nazi-appointed director of the Folkwang Museum in Essen, after the forced retirement of Ernst Gosebruch (q.v.). Baudissin, as part of a commission headed by the painter and president of the Reich Culture Chamber, Adolf Ziegler, seized over 5,000 works from private and public collections including Emil Nolde, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Max Beckmann.
  • Expert in the German Art of the Middles Ages. Baum studied art history at the universities of Munich, Berlin and Tübingen, where he worked under Karl Voll (q.v.) and Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v). He completed his dissertation in Tübingen in 1905 on the churches of the architect Heinrich Schickhardt (1558-1634) under Konrad Lange (q.v.). Baum wrote his habilitation under Heinrich Weizsäcker (q.v.) in Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart.
  • Architectural historian and Italianist.
  • Connoisseur and art critic, co-founder of the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florence. Bayersdorfer initially studied medicine before moving to Munich in 1853 and switching to the humanities. Beginning in 1862 he studied philosophy, art history as well as economics, never attaining a degree in any of these fields. In 1870 he became noted as a journalist and chess player. In the following years he wrote for the theatre reviews for the newspapers of Vienna and Munich, including Richard Wagner's Die Meistersinger and Die Walküre, 1868/70.
  • Co-editor of the magisterial dictionary of artists, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. Becker studied art history in Bonn and in Leipzig as the assistant to August Schmarsow. He and Ulrich Thieme began work on a comprehensive dictionary of artists, architects and decorators in 1898. The first volume appeared in 1907. Becker withdrew from the project in 1910 because of ill health.
  • Historian of medieval and Renaissance art; among the key group of German art historians to recast the conception of the middle ages in their scholarship. The son of a salesman, Beenken studied in Freiburg and Munich, the latter where he wrote his dissertation under Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v) on the topic of Enlightenment sculpture, Die allgemeine Gestaltungsproblem in der Baukunst des deutschen Klassizismus (1920). Afterward he turned his attention toward German sculpture of the Middle Ages. His habilitation Die Rottweiler: eine deutsche Bildhauerschule des 14.
  • Librarian and scholar of classical art. He served as librarian for Prince Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz from 1675 as well as conservator for the prince's collection of coins and medals. In 1685, Berger began publishing these in his Thesaurus ex Thesauro Palatino Selectus. The arrangement of the gems was according to era (rulers), mythological subject. Bronze sculpture was also included in his publications. In 1693 Berger was appointed librarian of the coin, art and artifact collection of Frederick I of Prussia in Berlin.
  • Architectural social-art theorist and historian. Behne was the son of architect Carl Behne. At age one, his family moved to Berlin where he grew up in the Centralviehhof district. After graduation from the local Gymnasium, he attended the Hochschule in Berlin-Charlottenburg intending on a career in architecture. In 1907 he switch to art history, studying at the Friedrich-Wilhelm Universität. After research in Italy in 1911, he completed his dissertation (granted in 1913), Der Inkrustationsstil in der Toskana (The Incrusted Style of Tuscany).
  • Professor for Art History and Media Theory, Hochschule für Gestaltung, Karlsruhe, Germany. Belting studied Art History, Archaeology and History at the universities of Mainz and Rome. He completing his dissertation in 1959 in Mainz. He was a Visiting Fellow at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC where he studied under Ernst Kitzinger (q.v.). Belting returned to Germany where he taught as assistant professor at the University of Hamburg in 1966. He was promoted to Professor for Art History at Heidelberg in 1970.
  • Modernist art historian and art librarian, professor University of Kansas. Berger studied art history under Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v.), Adolph Goldschmidt (q.v.), Graf Vitzthum von Eckstädt (q.v.) and Paul Frankl (q.v.) at the respective universities of Munich, Berlin, Heidelberg and Göttingen. He completed his dissertation under Moritz Geiger in aesthetics at Göttingen in 1925, his topic addressing Wölfflin's methodology. From 1926-28 was an assistant and one of the earliest collaborators at the Warburg Library in Hamburg, under Fritz Saxl (q.v.).
  • Museum curator, authority on early Christian, Byzantian, Islamic and early Nordic art and textiles. Berliner's parents were Theodor Berliner, a protestant from Jewish extraction, who owned a factory, and Philippine Wollner (Berliner). Beginning in 1904, Berliner studied art history in Berlin, Heidelberg and Vienna under Max Dvořák, earning his doctorate in 1910 with a dissertation on the dating of a Greek manuscript miniature painting.
  • Medievalist art historian and professor; wrote on phenomenology. Bernheimer was born into a prominent family of art dealers, Bernheimer of Munich. In the early 20th century, the firm was one of the most important dealerships in precious materials, antiquities, Gobelins and oriental carpets. Between 1925-30, Bernheimer studied art history (both Western and Oriental) as well as archeology in Munich, Berlin and Rome with Wilhelm Pinder (q.v.), Adolph Goldschmidt (q.v.), August Liebmann Mayer (q.v.), Hans Kauffmann (q.v.), Werner Weisbach (q.v.) and Hans Hildebrandt (q.v.).
  • Collector and romantic-era historian of German medieval art.
  • Architectural historian and Director of Germanischen Nationalmuseums (Germanic Museum) in Nuremberg. Bezold studied architecture and art history at the technical college (Technische Hochschule) of Munich between 1868-73. In 1873 he secured a job as architect and technical assistant, and later on as planning engineer, at the Bavarian railroad. Between 1887-94 he lectured as a privatdozent at the Hochschule, and together with Berthold Riehl (q.v.), worked on the inventory of art monuments in Bavaria.
  • Archaeologist and art historian of ancient theater. Bieber was the daughter of Jacob Heinrich Bieber, a factory owner, and Valli Bukofzer (Bieber). In 1899 she was privately tutored in Berlin, receiving her Abitur. In Berlin she studied under Hermann Diels (1848-1922), Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1848-1931), and Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz. In 1904 she moved to Bonn to study under Georg Loeschke as well as Paul Clemen and Franz Bücheler (1837-1908).
  • Specialist in classical Greek and Roman art, particularly known for his focused interpretations and histories of single works of art. Forced to leave his university studies in 1935 because of the Jewish heritage of his father, but remained in Germany and survived a forced labor camp (Organization Todt) in France to return to Germany and resume his studies. After finishing his habilitation in 1947, began teaching at the University of Greifswald where he advanced to the rank of full professor in 1959.
  • Riemenschneider scholar, professor and director of the North Carolina Museum of Art. Bier grew up in a wealthy Nuremberg family. He attended the Humanistisches Gymnasium in that city. After graduation in 1917, he fought in the first World War 1917-18. Between 1919 and 1924 Bier studied art history, archaeology, and medieval and modern history at the universities in Munich, Erlangen, Jena, Bonn and finally Zürich. His major professors were Paul Clemen (q.v.) and Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v.).
  • Early Warburg Institute developer and Director. Bing's parents were Moritz Bing and Emma Jonas (Bing). After attending the Lyceum in Hamburg, 1909-1913 and receiving an abitur from the Heinrich-Hertz Realgymnasium in 1916, she attended the universities of Munich and then Hamburg concentrating in philosophy. Her dissertation, written under Ernst Cassirer (q.v.) in 1921, focused on Lessing and Leibniz.
  • Professor of Baroque art, UCLA. Birkmeyer received his Ph.D. from Humbolt University in 1943. With the victory of the Allies over Germany in 1945, Birkmeyer was made Chief advisor and administrator to the Fine Arts & Architecture section of the American Military government in Bavaria, concluding his services in 1948. He immigrated to the United States where he was appointed assistant professor of art history at Stanford University in 1950. He moved the the University of California, Los Angeles in 1953, rising to professor of art in 1962. He chaired the department of art 1966-1968.
  • New York University Institute of Fine Arts professor of classical art history. Blanckenhagen's lectures drew large crowds at the Institute. "Seemingly without notes or preparation he would speak eloquently for an hour on each statue, and sometimes for it, making it seem as if ancient statues, whether male or female, possessed deep, rich, German-accented voices" (Nelson).

  • Museum director and scholar of Romanesque and 19th-century German sculpture. Bloch was the son of a Berlin book publisher, Peter Bloch and mother Charlotte Streckenbach (Bloch). He attended the Gymnasium in Steglitz, graduating in 1943. Despite having a Jewish background, Bloch joined the German army. He was wounded in battle and taken as a prisoner of war, remaining in a Belgian POW camp (working in the mines) until 1948.
  • Director of the Berlin State Museum and early examiner of material used by ancient Greeks. Bluemel weighed in on the controversial authenticity case of the Metropolitan bronze horse. The antiquities procurer John Marshall (1862-1928) had acquired a small bronze horse in 1923 for the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In 1967, the museum's financial director, Joseph V. Noble and the curator in the Department of Greek and Roman Art, Dietrich von Bothmer (q.v.), announced that the bronze was a forgery based upon stylistic grounds and gamma ray testing.
  • Specialist in ancient Greek and Roman art. Curator (1929-1935) and Professor (1935-39, 1944-61) at the Berlin Museum. Director of the antiquities collection at the Berlin Museum 1947-1961, Blümel was responsible for rebuilding the collection on the Museumsinsel (in East Berlin) after the war.
  • Classical archaeologist, art historian and successor to Karl Dilthey as professor at the University of Zürich, 1887-1919. Born the son of a policeman, Blümner studied archaeology at the University in Bonn under Otto Jahn (q.v.), whose philology deeply influenced him. He taught initially at Breslau and Königsberg. In 1887 he succeeded Karl Dilthey as professor of classics at the university in Zürich.
  • Columbia University anthropologist who wrote an early text on indigenous art forms. Boas was the son of Meier Boas and Sophie Meyer (Boas). He attended Bonn, Heidelberg, and Kiel universities studying physics, mathematics, and geography, the latter under the distinguished Theobald Fischer. Boas obtained his doctorate in physics at the University of Kiel in 1881. A non-religious Jew, he was fascinated by the theories of geographical determinism in Europe at the time.
  • Giotto and Renaissance art scholar. His unfinished manuscript on Giotto's arena chapel was completed after his death by Robert Oertel (q.v.).
  • Director of the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett under Wilhelm Bode. .In 1930, Bock and Jakob Rosenberg (q.v.) published the complete catalogue of Dutch drawings at the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett. It includes all Flemish and Dutch schools from around 1420 to 1800. Not included, however, are the works acquired after 1930. He resigned because of poor health in 1933 and died shortly thereafter. He was succeeded by Friedrich Winkler (q.v.).
  • Director General of all Prussian museums 1906-1920 and major influence on German art history in the early twentieth century; scholar of Dutch 17th-century painting and Italian Renaissance painting and sculpture. Bode hailed from an illustrious German family. His grandfather, Wilhelm Julius Bode (1779-1854), had been the director of city of Braunschweig, Germany. His father, Wilhelm Bode (1812-1883) was a judge and administrator for the Duke of Braunschweig.
  • Student of Henry Thode (q.v.) at Heidelberg and school friend of W. R. Valentiner (q.v.). He published articles in the contemporary art journal Pan, founded by Julius Meier-Grafe (q.v.).

  • Scholar of the Italian baroque and renaissance; responsible for introducing Otto Kurz to Denis Mahon the 1930s.
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