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  • Classical art scholar and director of the DAI, 1984-. Andreae graduated from the university at Marburg in 1956, where he studied under Friedrich Matz (der Jünger) (q.v.). His thesis focused on the iconography of patrimony in Roman sarcofagi. Between 1956 and 1959 he was assistant professor at the DAI or German archaeological Institute in Rome contributing frequently to the Archaeologische Anzeiger.
  • Iconographic approach.

  • Vienna-School art historian, Netherlandish specialist and Director of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Baldass studied in Graz, Halle (under Adolph Goldschmidt, q.v.) and Munich before gaining his degree at the University in Vienna. His thesis, written under Max Dvořák (q.v.) and accepted in 1911, was on portraiture of the Emperor Maximilian. Baldass joined the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna the same year, eventually being appointed curator in 1918. He married Paula Wagner, granddaughter of the architect Otto Wagner (1841-1918).
  • Museum curator; author of first modern comprehensive catalog of prints, Le Peintre-graveur. Bartsch was the son of a court official of Prince Starhemberg of Austria. He studied academic subjects at the University in Vienna and then drawing and engraving at Viennese Academy of Arts (Kupferstecherakademie) under Jacob Schmuzer (1733-1811). From 1777-1781 he worked in the Imperial Library, cataloging books. Between 1783-4 he was sent to Paris with the print collection's registrar, Paul Strattmann, to acquire the print collection of the Johann Anton de Peters (1725-1795).
  • Author of a history of Greek and Roman artists. Bartsch was the son of the more famous, [Johann] Adam von Bartsch. From 1814 onwards he assisted his father in the imperial library collection of prints. In 1818 he published a catalog of his father's collection, the Catalogue des estampes de J. Adam de Bartsch. He succeeded his father at the imperial print collection in 1827. In 1835 Bartsch issued a history of artists of the classical Greek and Roman era, Chronologie der griechischen und römischen Künstler. Like his father, too, he was an etcher.
  • Early collector of Egon Schiele, wrote a memoir of the artist. Benesch was a railroad administrator in Vienna for the southern line. Although the position was not a particularly lucrative one, he collected contemporary Austrian art. Early on he befriended the Austrian expressionist artist Egon Schiele and became one of his earliest patrons. Schiele painted a combined portrait of him and his son in 1913 (Doppelbildnis H. Benesch und Sohn, Neue Galerie der Stadt Linz, Wolfgang Gurlitt Museum, Inventory 12).
  • Rembrandt scholar and director of the Albertina 1947-61. Benesch's father was the art collector Heinrich Benesch (q.v.). Among the elder Benesch's friends was the Austrian Expressionist Egon Schiele. A double portrait of father and son, painted by Schiele in 1913, is owned by the Wolfgang-Gurlitt-Museum in Linz, Austria. The younger Benesch studied art history at the University of Vienna and a semester in Stockholm under Johnny Roosval (q.v.). Around 1919 he assisted Friedrick Antal (q.v.) in organizing the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest.
  • Classicist art historian. Benndorf studied under the archaeologist/philologist Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (1784-1868), the pottery scholar Otto Jahn and the classicist Friedrich Ritschl (1806-1876) at Bonn. He wrote his habilitationschrift in 1868 under Friedrich Wieseler (1811-1892) in Göttingen. During a brief position teaching at Schulpforte, Germany, his pupils included the young Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900).
  • Wickhoff student (?), illuminated manuscripts specialist.
  • Museum director of Austrian art museums. Ernst Heinrich Buschbeck was born to Helene (née Marbach) and Alfred Buschbeck, the father from a prestigious military family. Buschbeck graduated from the Schottengymnasium in Vienna and after a compulsory year of military service 1907-1908, he studied philosophy and jurisprudence at Lausanne and Vienna.

  • Director of the Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1949-1967. d'Harnoncourt was born into a wealthy Viennese family, Count Hubert and Julie Mittrowsky d'Harnoncourt. The family moved to Graz, where he initially intended on a career as a chemist, studying at the university in Graz. He moved to the Technische Hochschule in Vienna in 1922, writing a thesis on creosote content in the coal of Yugoslavia, but without graduating. When the family fortuned declined after World War I, d'Harnoncourt moved to Mexico in 1925 to seek employment as a chemist.

  • University of Vienna Byzantinist and San Marco scholar. Demus's father, Carl Demus, was a physician. His father was killed early during the First World War and the younger Demus partially supported of his family as an adolescent. He entered the University of Vienna in 1921 during the time of the historic (and bitter) split between the faculty of Josef Strzygowski, and Julius von Schlosser. The rivalry between these two men was such that studying with both was impossible.
  • Byzantinist, Strzygowski student and professor at Bryn Mawr College, 1939-1943. 1919 Lecturer, University of Vienna; 1926-1939 professor at Bryn Mawr; 1939-1943 returned to Vienna; Associate Professor, 1943-1949 first professor of art history in Ankara. Together with Curt Glaser and Ernst Grosse, Diez established the theoretic foundation for Asian art in the German-speaking world (Metzler).
  • Art historian of the Italian Renaissance; student of Wickhoff; after his untimely death, Wickhoff edited his dissertation for publication. Dollmayr's 1898 remarks that the study of Hieronymous Bosch should focus on his view of eschatology were the inspiration for a study of Bosch by Ludwig Baldass (q.v.) in 1943.
  • University of Vienna professor of Josef Strzygowski's competing art history school. Specialist in carpets.
  • One of the pillars of "Vienna-School" of art history; employed a Geistesgeschichte methodology (cf. Dilthey). Dvořák was the son of a archivist and librarian for the Palace of Roudnice, Bohemia. He began his education in Prague, migrating to Vienna in 1895 where he completed a doctorate in history at the Institut für österreichische Geschichtsforschung in 1897 in Vienna. While in Vienna he became intrigued with the works of Aloïs Riegl and Franz Wickhoff the latter also a graduate of the Institut.

  • Numismatist, director of the medals collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna; assisted in Nazi looting of art treasures. Though he had not been previously politically active, Dworschak joined the Nazi party (NSDAP) at the annexation (Anschluss) of Austria in 1938, perhaps at the instigation of Rudolf Noll, an assistant in the antiquity section of the Museum, and was appointed director of the Münzkabinet (medals collection) of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in 1940.
  • Vienna School historian. He collaborated with the classicist art historian Christian Hülsen on the edited facsimile of the notebook of Martin van Heemskerk's important drawings of Rome. Egger's Ph.D. students included Walter Frodl.
  • Fruedian art theorist

  • Specialist in ancient Greek and Roman art, particularly sculpture and bronze statuary. Curator of varying rank at the Kunsthistorischen Museums, Vienna, beginning in 1915, and director of the Antiquities Collection, 1935-1952. Professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of Vienna (1953-1961), and director of the österreichische archäologische Institut (Austrian Archaeological Institute, or öAI) from 1953 to 1969.
  • Director of the Picture Gallery of the Academy of Fine Arts (Akademie der Bildenden Künste) 1926-29, 33-65, Vienna. Eigenberger studied art history at the universities of Prague, Munich and Göttingen, receiveing his Ph.D., in 1913 in Berlin. He served in the First World War (1915-16). After working in the cultural monuments division of the Austrian Ministry of Culture, he was curator (Kustos) at the Picture Gallery of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1922. He was made director in 1926.
  • Early academic art historian; founder and first chair of art history (Ordinarius) at the University of Vienna (1851) and founder of the österreiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie. Eitelberger was the son of an Austrian military officer. He studied law in Olmütz in 1832 before changing to Romance philology in which he gained his degree under Julius von Ficker (1826-1902). He lectured in philology between 1839-1848 at the University in Vienna. In the 1840s he started making connections with art collectors, such as Joseph Daniel Böhm (1794-1865), director of the Graveurakademie am k. k.
  • architect; worked on a history of world architecture which was based more on conjecture than source material of the time
  • Museum curator; historian of taste and esthetics. Falke studied classical Philology at Erlangen and Göttingen and worked initially as teacher. He joined the Germanisches Nationalmuseum as curator in Nuremberg in 1855. In 1858 he became of Librarian (archivist) and advisor of the art collection of the Princes of Liechtenstein in Vienna. During his time in Vienna, Falke became interested in the contemporary design movement of useful arts, already flourishing in England.
  • Professor of Italian Renaissance art. The son of a Jewish craftsman, Fehl grew up in Vienna. After the annexation of Austria, Fehl fled first to England and then, in July 1940, to the United States. He studied painting at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, but volunteered for war service. Fehl was an interrogator for the United States Army at the Nuremberg Trials 1946-47. He returned to study art history with Ulrich Middeldorf (q.v.) at the University of Chicago. He additionally attended the Brussels Art Seminar seminar by Erwin Panofsky (q.v.).
  • Architect who published an early architectural history, Entwurf einer historischen Architektur (1721).
  • Scholar of Renaissance and Baroque art in Austria and Italy, Nazi collaborator during World War II. Frey studied (practicing) architecture at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna. In 1911, the second-Vienna School art historian Max Dvořák (q.v.) took him as his assistant in the Austrian monument conservation bureau. Dvořák encourage Frey to study art history, and Frey wrote his dissertation in 1915 (under Dvořák) on Bramante's plan for St. Peter's.
  • Beethoven scholar and esthetician. Wrote catalog of the collection at the Gemäldegalerie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1901.
  • Scholar of Romanesque art, selected works of art for Nazi confiscation to the Reich. Frodl received his Ph. D. in 1930 from the University at Graz where he studied under Hermann Egger and the classical art historian Rudolf Heberdey. He became a privatdozent studying architectural conservation at the Technical Hochschule, Graz. In 1936 he was appointed Head of Carinthian Monuments and Fine Arts Office, a unit for the conservation of buildings [Landeskonservator für Kärnten im Klagenfurt].
  • Director of the Kunstgewerbemuseum (Arts and Industry Museum), Vienna. In 1933 he secured the assistance of Ludwig Münz (q.v.) in reorganizing the antiquities collection of the Kunstgewerbemuseum, which was regarded as a model of its kind (Burlington Magazine).
  • Manuscripts scholar.

  • University of London professor of art history, champion of psychological-approach to art. Gombrich grew up within one of the elite cultural circles of Vienna. His father, Karl Gombrich (1874-1950), was the vice-president of the Disciplinary Council of the Austrian Bar, and his mother, Leonie Hock (Gombrich) (1873-1968), was a pianist who had studied under the composer Anton Bruckner (1824-1896) and taught piano to Gustav Mahler's sister. Gombrich himself was an accomplished cellist. The family had originally been Jewish but converted to Lutheranism at the turn of the 20th century.
  • Greek classical vase scholar; selected to be the first volume in the important Bilder griechischer Vasen series by J. D. Beazley (q.v.) and Paul Jacobsthal (q.v.). Hahland graduated from the Staatsgymnasium in Linz in 1922. He studied at Heidelberg under Ludwig Curtius, Carl Neumann and Bernard Schweitzer (q.v.); Marburg under F Wolters; and Kiel. He received his Ph.D. from Philipps-Universität in Marburg, writing his dissertation on Attic vase painting under Jacobsthal.
  • University of Innsbruck professor of art. Among students who benefitted from his lectures were Emil Kaufmann (q.v.). Part of the Nazi ideology of the 1930s.
  • Classical sculpture historian. Students who studied under Heberdey included Walter Frodl.
  • Precursor to the (first) Vienna school of art history. Heider gained his law degree in Vienna. In 1842 he became an adjunct (assistant) in the library of the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts (Wiener Akademie der bildenden Künste). He joined the Ministry of Education (Ministerium für Kultus und Unterricht) in 1850, and remained there until 1880. He began his art-history writing with über Tiersymbolik (On Animal Symbolism) in 1849. In 1855 he published a study of Schöngraben church outside Vienna. Part of the appeal of the church was its decaying art work.
  • Classicist art historian.

  • Interdisciplinary historian of 19th- and 20th-century art, museum director. Hofmann was the son of Leopold Hofmann and Anna Visvader (Hofmann). He studied art history in Paris and Vienna, graduating from the University of Vienna. Between 1950-55, he worked as an assistant curator of the Albertina Museum in Vienna. In 1957 Hofmann took on fellow Vienna-school art historian Hans Sedlmayr in his review of Sedlmayr's book Verlust der Mitte.
  • Director, Vienna Academy of Fine Art Gallery. He married the medievalist art historian Irmgard Hutter.
  • Medievalist of the early Christian/Byzantine era. Married to the art museum director Heribert Hutter.

  • Professor and early Christian art scholar at University of Vienna. In 1895 Härtel co-published, Die Wiener Genesis, with his Vienna colleague Franz Wickhoff (q.v.). Härtel undertook the description of the manuscript and of the Greek text, and Wickhoff that of the pictures.
  • Alberti and Romaneque art scholar; Gratz education; taught at Leipzig. In 1882 he married the writer Maria Tölk (1859-1927) [pseudonym Marius Stein]. His students included Georg Dehio (q.v.), Aby Warburg (q.v.) and Paul Clemen (q.v.). Colleague of Anton Springer (q.v.). At Strassburg, Janitschek's students included Wilhelm Vöge (q.v.). In 1890, Janitschek was the first to use the terms "Ottonian art" and "Ottonian painting" for art (i.e., independent of the architectural mode) first identified by Johann Fiorillo (q.v.), Franz Kugler (q.v.) and Gustav Waagen (q.v.).
  • Archaeologist and classical art professor, first post-war director of the Deutsches Archaölogisches Institut in Rome; major exponent of strukturprinzip approach to ancient art. Kaschnitz von Weinberg received his doctorate at the University of Vienna under the so-called (first) Vienna school of art history, whose faculty included Max Dvořàk, and Franz Wickhoff. His dissertation, written in 1913, was on Greek vase painting. Kaschnitz served in the Austrian Army during the First World War.
  • Ledoux and French Revolutionary architecture scholar. Kaufmann was the son of Max Kaufmann (d. 1902), businessman, and Friederike Baumwald (Kaufmann) (b. 1862). He was raised in Vienna, attending the Maximiliansgymnasium, 9th region of the city (IX Bezirk) along with the future Warburg School art historian Fritz Saxl. He received his Abitur in 1909 and entered the Exportakademie (literally, Export Academy), studying trade through 1911. Beginning in 1913 he attended lectures in the humanities at the Universities of Innsbruck and Vienna.
  • Scholar of ancient glass.

  • Archeologist and professor at the German University of Prague, 1886-1923; scholar of Greek (especially red-figure) vase painting. Klein studied Jewish theology and then philosophy at the university in Vienna and then Prague. He traveled to Italy and Greece to study archeological sites, where his interests focused on pottery. In 1879 he published on Euphronius, the Greek vase painter named on a pot. Klein was appointed professor of archeology at the University of Prague in 1886.
  • Director of the Albertina, 1962-1986. Koschatzky attended the state gymnasium in Lichtenfelsgasse, Graz, graduating in 1933 and the military academy in Liebenau (1936-40). Between 1940-45 he served in the Austrian army. After the war he returned to Graz and enrolled in Karl-Franzens University, studying art history, archaeology, and history which he financed in part by performances as a jazz musician. In 1948 he married Trude (Caroline) Bauer (d. 1994) in Graz. He received his Ph.D.
  • Art historian of South Asian art. Studied under Joseph Strzygowski (q.v.) at University of Vienna. Dissertation on early Buddhist sculpture (1919). 1921-50 taught at University of Calcutta. During those years she edited Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art and published numerous works including magnum opus, The Hindu Temple (1946). She traveled to the U.S.
  • Second-Vienna-School authority on Renaissance gold work and engraved gems; a psychoanalyst who employed psychoanalytical approach to art history. Kris was the son of Leopold Kris, a lawyer, and Rosa Schick (Kris). Because a War coal shortage forced his Gymnasium (district 13) to reduce school hours, Kris heard his first college-level art history courses during mornings. After graduating in 1918, he entered the University of Vienna studying art history, archaeology and psychology.