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Director of the National Gallery of Australia, 1990-1997. Elizabeth Ann Dewar Cameron was born to William Dewar Cameron (1893-1962), a Scotish immigrant and Vida Margaret Hutton (Cameron) (1894-1985). From 1938 to 1946, her maternal great-grandmother funded her to attend the private girl’s school, Somerville House. Churcher first became interested in art in 1939 when she went to the Queensland Art Gallery. She won several child-art contests through The Sunday Mail Child Art Contest.

Art historian and collector, established "Cicognara" art bibliography. Cicognara was educated in Modena at the Collegio dei Nobili. As a young man he knew the sculptor Antonio Canova. In 1788 he moved to Rome where he was admitted to the Società dell'Arcadia. There he studied art with Domenico Corvi (1721-1803) and the German painter Jacob Philipp Hackert (1737-1807). In addition, he gained an enthusiasm for classical ruins and contemporary art theory.

Poet, composer and author of a major symbol dictionary and co-author of Ars Hispaniae. Cirlot was the son of Juan Cirlot and Maria Laporta. After graduating from the College of the Jesuits, Barcelona, he worked as a customs agent and at the Banco Hispanoamericano. His initial interest was in music, which he studied until called as a soldier to fight against Franco in the Second Spanish Republic, 1937. With their defeat he was again mobilized by the Franco regime in 1940.

Vassar Professor of Art and Director of the Vassar Art Gallery. Claflin graduated from the Madeira School in 1917 and entered Mount Holyoke College that fall. She remained there until 1919. In 1921 she graduated magna cum laude from Radcliffe College. She taught briefly at Vassar College in 1923 as lecturer, but returned to Radcliffe to complete her graduate degrees, the M.A. in 1927 and Ph. D. in 1928. In 1929 she published her first book, Sculpture, "The contemporary point of view about the art of sculpture," as she wrote in her introduction.

wrote standard work on English Romanesque art

First director of the Frick Collection, 1936-1951; poet. Clapp hailed from a priviledged family; a relative of his mother, Mary Carroll, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His father was Washington F. Clapp. He attended the City College of New York 1896-1898 and then Yale 1899-1902 receiving an B. A. and M.A. He returned to the City College, teaching Greek from 1904 to 1906. He moved to California to lecture on Elizabethan drama and Russian literature for the extention services at the University of California, 1906-1908.

Marxist-approach art historian; Chancellor's Professor of Modern Art at the University of California, Berkeley. Clark attended Bristol Grammar School, before graduating with a A. B., from St. John's College, Cambridge University earning a first class distinction in 1964. He joined the Situationalist International in 1966, whose theorist, Guy Debord (1931-1994), developed the concept of "spectacle" that Clark would use later in his work. He received his Ph. D. in art history from the Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London in 1973.

Museum director; Metropolitan Museum of art curator and specialist in Roman baroque painting. He was raised in a Quaker household. Clark's boyhood fascination with birds led him to consider a career in ornithology. However, he graduated from Harvard in 1945 with a degree in fine arts. The following ten years he spent as a working artist. After World War II, Clark painted in New York, joining the American Abstract Artists' Association. Beginning in 1948, he toured Europe.

Director of the National Gallery, London, 1933-1945, and early television popularizer of art history. Clark's family was heir to the fortune amassed by his Scottish great-grandfather, the inventor of the cotton spool. His parents were Kenneth MacKenzie Clark and Margaret Alice Clark. Clark himself was raised in Edwardian idle elegance as an only child. Growing up he attended Winchester. Clarke won a scholarship to Trinity College, Oxford, gave up hopes of becoming an artist, and set his sights on art history. In 1922 he met Charles F.

Second director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1905-10) and the South Kensington Museum. Clarke was the son of Edward Marmaduke Clarke, of Somerset family and Mary Agnes Close. He studied architecture at the National Art Training Schools at South Kensington between 1862-1865. In that year he joined the government office assigned to rebuilding the Houses of Parliament. Clarke married Frances Susannah Collins in 1866. In 1867 he moved to the South Kensington Museum where he oversaw mosaic reproduction.

Art connoisseur and director, Fitzwilliam Museum, 1937-1946. Clarke succeeded Sydney Cockerell as Director in 1937. For most of his tenure, Britain was at war. Clarke oversaw the move and collections to safekeeping (museums were possible targets of German bombing). Still, he organized temporary exhibitions in the Museum for the public. Astutely, he used museum funds to buy important work at when the war had depressed the market. An art collector, he donated 2,700 items in his lifetime.

Medievalist, principally architecture; produced scholarlship predominantly in Nazi and DDR (communist) Germany. Clasen studied art history in Munich under Heinrich Wölfflin beginning in 1913 and then with Adolph Goldschmidt in Berlin, from 1918. In 1921 he received his doctorate under Arthur Haseloff at Christian-Albrechts-Universität in Kiel with a thesis titled Wehrbau und Kirchenbau (defense and church building).

French playwright, poet, essayist and art writer. Claudel was born in Villeneuve-sur-Fère in the north of France in 1868. His father, Louis Prosper Claudel, was a petit-bourgeois registrar. His mother, Louise-Athanaïse Cerveaux (Claudel) came from a local farming family in Champagne. Claudel’s sister Camille, four years his senior, would go on to achieve widespread acclaim as sculptor. Although the family was Roman Catholic, they were not particularly devout. Claudel was educated privately in Champagne before the family moved to Paris around 1882.

structuralist modern art historian

Medievalist; professor of art history at Bonn 1902-1935; close associate of Heinrich Wölfflin. Clemen studied art history and philology at the universities of Leipzig, Bonn and Strassburg. His mentors included Carl Nicolaus Heinrich Justi and Anton Springer. His interest for the Middle Ages was triggered in Bonn by the historian Karl Lamprecht, who himself had begun in art history. Clemen attained his doctorate in 1889 in Leipzig under Hubert Janitschek.

Géricault scholar, wrote major attribution catalog on Géricault. Lorenz Eitner described as "one of the very best art-historical monographs produced in the nineteenth-century." His granddaughter was the art historian Françoise Henry.

Spanish art; wrote critically of the omissions made in scholarship on the art of Spain

Architectural historian and architect; first to record entasis in Greek temples. Cockerell was trained between1809-1810 by his father, Samuel Pepys Cockerell (1753-1827), to follow in his footsteps as an architect. He also studied with the architect of the British Museum, Sir Robert Smirke (1780-1867). Cockerell toured Europe between 1810-1817, sometimes delivering messages to the British fleet, but also visiting the regions of the Ottoman Empire and southern Italy. He met Lord Byron and his colleague, John Foster (1887-1846), the latter with whom he traveled.

Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 1908-1937; illuminated manuscript scholar and of William Morris. Cockerell was born to John Cockerell (1842-1877), a coal merchant and Alice Elizabeth Bennett (Cockerell) (d. 1900). The younger Cockerell attended St. Paul's School, London, in 1882 but the death of his father when Cockerell was ten required him to leave in 1885 to work in the family business. He rose, under his uncles' patronage, to parter in 1889, but left permanently in 1892.


Renaissance architectural and garden historian; Princeton professor 1949-1988. Coffin was born to H. Errol Coffin and Lois Robbins (Coffin). His father was a practicing architect. The younger Coffin graduated from Princeton University in 1940 with an A. B. He began graduate work at Yale University the same year, but with the outbreak of World War II, Coffin joined the United States Army in 1942. At discharge in 1945, he returned to graduate school, this time Princeton, and gained an M.F.A. in 1947. He married Nancy M. Nesbit the same year.

Museum director, exponent of German Expressionism, especially  August Macke. Cohen was born in 1880 to Helene and Friedrich Cohen. His father was a book publisher in Bonn, Germany. Cohen graduated from the Städtisches Progymnasium mit Oberrealschule in 1898, and the following year began the study of ancient languages.

Collaborator of Offner's Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. Cohn studied in Berlin between 1923-26 under Adolph Goldschmidt and Freiburg, 1926-29 under Hans Jantzen, for whom he wrote his dissertation in 1929. His topic was on Han Holbein the Younger. Between 1931 and 1933 Cohn worked as a volunteer in the prints and drawings and library sections at the Staatlichen Museen in Berlin. When the Nazis came to power, Cohn, a protestant of Jewish lineage, was dismissed from his position.

Medievalist art historian who later focused on Islamic and Indian art. Cohn-Wiener was born to Alfred Cohn, a pensioner, and Helene Wiener. After graduating from the Bromberg Gymnasium (West Prussia, today Bydgoszcz, Poland) in 1902  he studied art history under the major art historians of Germany in Berlin and Heidelberg. These included, Adolph Goldschmidt, Heinrich Wölfflin, Max J.

Historian of Greek pottery.

Distinguished professor of art history, Indiana University, Bloomington, specialist in the Art of Renaissance Italy. Cole was raised in Cleveland, Ohio. He graduated with a BA from Western Reserve University in 1962, earning his master’s degree in art history at Oberlin in two years later. Following this, Cole completed his doctorate in art history at Bryn Mawr in 1969. His dissertation examined the work of fourteenth century Florentine painter Agnolo Gaddi (c.1350–1396).

Giotto scholar; notes about Coletti's opinions appear in Richard Offner's annotated catalog of the 1937 Mostra Giottesca.

Archaeologist and art historian of ancient Greek sculpture. Collignon studied in Paris at the École normale supérieure beginning in 1868 under Georges Perrot. He was appointed professor of rhetoric in 1872 at Chambery teaching French literature. In 1873 he was made a member of the École française d'Athènes (French School of Athens) under the direction of Albert Dumont. In 1876 he traveled with the Abbe [Louis] Duchesne (1843-1922), the future director of the French School of Rome, to Asia minor making notes and drawings.

architectural historian specializing in material of architectural approach

British Consul-General to Florence, wrote biographies of Florentine artists

Architectural Historian and Oxford University lecturer. Colvin came from a lowland Scots family, the son of Montagu Colvin, a Vickers Corporation executive and stamp dealer and Anne Winifred Colvin. As a youth, he won scholarships to a number of public schools, but his father selected Trent College, Nottingham, for him for financial reasons. There, he encountered a history master, Mike Morgan, who encouraged Colvin to visit churches instead of participating in athletics. Colvin's first architectural history paper, published in 1938 when only nineteen, was on Dale Abbey, Derbyshire.

First director of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge University; British Museum Keeper of Prints and Drawings (1883-1912). Colvin was the son of Bazett David Colvin (1805-1871), a commercial agent in India, and Mary Steuart Bayley (1821-1902). Colvin was raised and privately tutored the family home, The Grove, Little Bealings, near Woodbridge, east Suffolk. As a boy he knew John Ruskin, whose work he emulated. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1863 graduating at the top of his class in Classics in 1867. The following year he was appointed a fellow.

American scholar and early art history exponent, founder of both the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, and Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY. Comfort was the son of Rev. Silas Comfort, a minister in the Methodist Episcopal church. He attended Wesleyan University in Middleton, CT. After graduation he taught science and drawing in New York seminaries. In 1860, Comfort traveled to Europe to study art history and archaeology.

Scholar of fin-de-siècle Germanic art and music; Southern Methodist University professor of art history. Alessandra Comini was born in Winona, Minnesota to Eleanor Frances (“Megan”) Laird (Comini), a writer, and Raiberto Comini, a hotel-and- business owner in Geneva, Ibiza (island) and London, in 1934.

biobliographer of art history

New York University and University of Arizona professor in art and art education. Conant served as First Lieutenant in the US Army Air Forces. His students included Jack Flam.

Archaeologist-historian of medieval architecture, particularly of the monastery buildings at Cluny. Conant was the son of son of John F. Conant and Lucie Mickelsen (Conant). He grew up in the paper-producing town of Neenah, Wisconsin, entering Harvard University in 1911. While taking fine arts courses, he took an architecture course offered by Herbert Langford Warren, founder of the Harvard School of Architecture. Conant continued at Harvard after graduation, studying (practicing) architecture at the School.

Americanist architectural historian of the skyscraper. Condit was the son of Arthur Thomas and Gertrude Pletz (Condit). His father was employed as a teacher in Cincinnati. After attending Walnut Hills High School in the city he entered Purdue University in Indiana studying Mechanical Engineering. He graduated with a BS in that subject in 1936. Condit's interests were stronger in the humanities, however and he returned to Cincinnati and the University there to study English literature. He awarded his A. M. in 1939 and his Ph.D. in 1941. His dissertation topic was on Geoffrey Chaucer.

Painter and purported author of an early and generally reliable biography of Michelangelo in 1553. Condivi came from a merchant family in Ripatransone where he was raised. He attended school there for five years beginning in 1537. He moved to Rome around 1545, where he met the senior Michelangelo and entered his workshop. During the same time that Giorgio Vasari wrote his first edition of his Le vite de più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori (Lives of the Artists), 1550, Condivi determined to write a biography solely of Michelangelo.

Senior curator of European paintings at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, 1998-2008. Conisbee was the son of Paul Conisbee. Though born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, Conisbee grew up in London. He attended St. Dunstan's college, Catford before entering the Courtauld Institute, London. He received a B.A. in the history of European art in 1968 and worked on a dissertation on the painter Claude-Joseph Vernet, which he never completed.

Americanist, Jackson Pollock scholar and of New-Deal era art, especially American murals. O'Connor's father was Frank J. O'Connor (1904-1974), a bank employee, and his mother Blanche Valentine Whalen (O'Connor) (1900-1974). He attended Manhattan College where he was awarded a B.A. in English in 1959. O'Connor continued to Johns Hopkins University for his M.A. in Creative Writing in 1960, changing to art history for his Ph.D.

Borromini and Italian Renaissance and Baroque architecture scholar, Professor, Columbia and Harvard Universities. Connors attended Jesuit Regis High School in Manhattan studying classical languages. He graduated from Boston College with an A. B. in 1966. He received a second B. A. from Clare College, Cambridge University on a Marshall Scholarship in 1968. There the lectures of Nikolaus Bernard Leon Pevsner convinced him to become an art historian. At Clare, too, he met a Univeristy of Paris student studying English literature, Françoise Moison.

First director of the Courtauld Institute and museum curator. Constable attended Derby school, where his father was headmaster, and St. John's College, Cambridge, where he studied law. He was admitted to the Bar in 1914. As a soldier in the First World War he suffered a near-death experience in 1917 (briefly buried alive by an explosion) and during his recuperation resolved to study the arts. He enrolled at the Slade School of of art where he met the critic George Augustus Moore.

Curator of graphic design and poster collections of the Museum of Modern Art, 1943-1970. After high school Constantine joined the College Art Association in 1930 as an editorial assistant on the journal Parnassus. She subsequently received a B.A. and M.A. from New York University. Later she attended the graduate school of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City. Constantine joined the Committee Against War and Fascism and traveled to Mexico in 1936 where she discovered how Latin and Central American groups employed graphics to engage populist sentiment.

Historian of Netherlandish art, art collector; mountaineer and adventurer; first chair of art history in Britain. Conway's father was William Conway, a vicar in Rochester, Kent, and later rector of St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, and his mother Elizabeth Martin (Conway). After attending Repton School he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1875 studying history. He was already an avid mountaineer, climbing the Alps during college recesses; he was elected to the Alpine Club in 1877.

Director of antique sculpture at Berlin Museum 1877-1887; brought Pergamon altar to Berlin. Conze was the son of a cavalry officer. He initially studied law at the university in Göttingen before changing to classics. His dissertation was written under Eduard Gerhard in Berlin in 1855. Conze made trips to Paris and London and was particularly inspired by the Elgin Marbles. He was appointed Professor (Extraordinarius) at University of Halle in 1863, moving to the University of Vienna in 1869 (through 1877).

British scholar, known for establishing, with Georg Gronau, the date for Titian's birth.

Cambridge University archaeologist and pottery scholar. Cook was the son of the Rev Charles Robert Cook and Mary Manuel (Cook). He was educated first at Marlborough and then Clare College, Cambridge, where he studied under Arthur Bernard Cook (1868-1952, no relation) and the numismatist/connoisseur Charles Theodore Seltman. He was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Classics at Manchester University in 1934.

Historian of medieval Spanish art, founding director of the Institute of Fine Art at New York University and leading figure in bringing German art historians and their style of art history to the United States. Cook was born to William Jeremiah Cook and Jan Macreal (Cook). He attended Phillips Academy before entering Harvard University. He served in the American Expeditionary Force, 1917-19 during World War I.

Architectural historian and Director of the Fogg Art Museum, 1948-1972. Coolidge's family was closely associated with Harvard University and Boston. His father, Julian Lowell Coolidge (1873-1954) was a mathematics professor at Harvard and first master of Lowell House, Harvard, and an uncle, Archibald Cary Coolidge (1866-1928), Professor of History (1908-1928) at Harvard College and the first Director of the Harvard University Library (1910-1928), Harvard.