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Keeper of the Wallace Collection and authority on armour. Camp was the son of E. D. Camp. He was educated at Birbeck College. In 1890 he entered the British civil service of the Conservative Central Office. By 1900 he had switched to the newly established Wallace Collection, where his duties were initially conceived of as bureaucratic. In 1908 he was appointed assistant keeper (curator) of the collection. He married Ada Sarah Jackson in 1912 (d. 1928).

Italian documentary historian, architectural historian and art biographer. In the 1850's he assisted G. B. Cavalcaselle in his abortive attempts to issue a documentary version of Vasari's Vite.

Professor of art history, University of Virginia, 1938-1950; chief art critic (and anti-modernist) for the New York Times during the period of abstract expressionism. Canaday was the son of Franklin Canaday and Agnes Musson (Canaday). His father was a Kansas attorney. The younger Canaday moved to Texas with his family at age seven. He attended the University of Texas in Austin, receiving his B.A. in 1925. His M.A. was granted from Yale University in 1932. He married Katherine Hoover in 1935. Between 1938-1950 he taught art history at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Egyptologist; Chief Curator of the Brussels Royal Museums of Art and History. In 1898, Capart finished his study of Law at the Free University of Brussels. He won an award for his thesis on Egyptian penal law, Droit pénal égyptien, and an abridged version of it was published in Revue de l'Université de Bruxelles (1899-1900). For further training in Egyptology, Capart attended the lessons of Alfred Wiedemann (1856-1936) at Bonn University and also visited other universities.

Early art historian at Oberlin College. Capps' father was a Princeton University classicist and director of the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, Edward Capps, Sr. (1866-1950). The younger Capps was born while his father was on the faculty of the fledgling University of Chicago. From his father he learned a devotion to languages and classical studies. After receiving his A.B. from Princeton in 1924, he continued to Harvard University for his master's degree, receiving both that and the Princeton M.F.A., which scholars of art history were granted, in 1927.

Professor of art history, University of Pisa in 1940-1973 and Director of the Pinacoteca, Siena, 1952-1973. Carli was born to Plinio Carli, a university professor, and Else Onetti (Carli). He studied at the University of Pisa, first under Mario Salmi and then Matteo Marangoni, receiving a B.Litt., in 1927. He married Tina Zanni in 1938. Carli was appointed professor of art history ("professore universitario di storia dell'arte medievale e moderna") at the University of Pisa in 1940, where he remained for most of his career.

Architectural historian and crusader for the protection of French medieval monuments; harsh opponent of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc's restorations.

Founder of Arte e storia, a weekly (later monthly) journal beginning 1882 and director, Museo di S Marco (1892, officially 1909-1916).

Art historian of Classical art; interested in ancient materials and methods. Carpenter's father, William Henry Carpenter was a provost at Columbia University, which the younger Carpenter attended, graduating at age 19. He received a Rhodes scholarship at Oxford, studying at Balliol College. At Oxford he published poetry and took both a second B.A. (1911) and an M.A. (1914). He had spent the year 1912-13 at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, which ignited a passion for classical studies.

Professor Akademie der Künste, Munich; author of the Bilder Atlas. The Bilder-Atlas was later translated by Arthur Lincoln Frothingham, Jr., and Allan Marquand. In 1880 J. J. Tikkanen studied under Carrière. In the early 1890's Carrière was criticized by the young Richard Muther in the Münchner Neuesten Nachrichten as being provincial.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, curator of prints, founded Print Collector’s quarterly. Carrington was born in Surbiton, Surrey in 1869 to R. C. and Sarah Jane (née Pewtress) Carrington. He was educated at Bute House in Petersham, England before attending college at Victoria College on the Island of Jersey. In 1886, he moved to Minnesota, United States. He briefly worked in agriculture, but soon began surveying for the Great Northern Railway. Afterwards, he was employed by Harington Beard (ca. 1868-1940), a fine art dealer in the city.

Art historian and dealer, responsible for many sensational painting discoveries in the post-World-War II period. Carritt was educated at Rugby School 1939-44 before attending Christ Church College, Oxford. While still at school he drew the attention of Benedict Nicolson, then editor of the Burlington Magazine, as someone which extraordinary art-historical perceptiveness. Nicholson took Carritt to visit the great Italian art authority, Bernard Berenson in Florence, who also was impressed with the Carritt's gifts.

Architectural historian. Attempted to write a survey of English medieval architecture following History of Gothic and Saxon Architecture in England(1798) by Browne Willis.

Antiquarian; organized important early exhibion on the van Eyck. Casier was the son of Désiré Casier (1824-1815), joint owner of a textile company, Casier Frères, and Henriette Le Grand (1825-1899). He was raised in a conservative Roman Catholic home, tutored by his parents and parish priest. He attended the Ghent Sint Barbara College and then entered the Collège Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur where he graduated in 1870. Casier was awarded a Doctor of Rights (law degree) at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, in 1873. His interest, however, was never in law.

Curator of Classical Art, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1912-1944. Caskey was the son of Rev. Taliaferro F. Caskey and Phoebe Lacey. He was raised in Dresden, Germany, where his father had a chaplaincy, and though educated in English-language schools (1882-1897), acquired numerous languages early on. He graduated from Yale, his father's alma mater, class of 1901, joining the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, first as a Fellow and then between 1905-1908 as the Secretary.

Philosopher whose work was influential for art history and historiography. Cassirer was born in Breslau, Silesia, Prussia which is present-day Wroclaw, Poland. He attended the Gymnasium in Breslau before admission to the University of Berlin where he studied jurisprudence and philosophy. Like many students of the era, he also attended university lectures at the universities of Leipzig, Munich, and Heidelberg. He settled at the University of Marburg in 1886. His Ph.D. in philosophy (summa cum laude) appeared in 1899.

Historian of modern sculpture and ancient Greece; studied effect of technique upon style in Greek art. Casson attended Merchant Taylors School and Lincoln and St. John's College, Oxford, initially studying anthropology before changing to archaeology. His major area was Hellenism. He was appointed assistant director of the British School in Athens in 1919, which he held until 1922. As editor of the Catalogue of the Acropolis Museum, the set appeared the same year. In 1927 he was made a reader at Oxford University. He was Special Lecturer in Art, Bristol University in 1931.

The Coutier (1527) describes artists

Spanish Art Historian, writer, art critic, and member of the Royal Board of Trustees of the Prado Museum. Maria Luisa Caturla was born in Barcelona, Spain, but lived most of her life in Madrid. Although she never attended a university, she early on developed an interest in art, especially ceramics and fabrics. She began to study art history using the books of Heinrich Wölfflin during her first trip to Italy which became a formative experience for her eventual field of work.

Archaeologist; reviver of interest in Romanesque sculpture in France; first to use the term (but not the concept); founder of the Société Française d'Archéologie. Caumont was born to a prominent Normandy family. He studied at the University in Caen under Abbé Gervais de la Rue (1751-1835) and Charles Gerville, who, exiles to England during the first empire, imbued Caumont with English ideas. In 1819 he graduated and began legal studies.

Historian of 17th- and 18th-century Italian art; Soprintendente ai Beni Artistici of Campania, 1965-1984. Causa attended the University of Naples completing his studies with a thesis on the 17th-century Neapolitan painter Micco Spadaro (1609-1675). In 1946 Causa was appointed Ispettore of the Soprintendenza (Naples), where he remained until 1965. During his tenure, he supervised restorations, organized exhibitions and produced art-historical studies of considerable interest.

Artist and art historian; collaborator with Joseph Archer Crowe on the first modern history of art to be written in English. Cavalcaselle studied studio painting at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice. When his interests changed to art history, he moved to Milan and Florence to study renaissance art. In 1847 he met Joseph Archer Crowe, a British art historian in Italy. The following year, Cavalcaselle joined in the 1848 revolutions sweeping Europe. For his part in the Italian revolt, he was condemned to death and force to flee.

Tufts University professor, medievalist scholar, and feminist theorist. Caviness, born Madeline Harrison, was born in London to Eric Vernon Harrison and Gwendoline Rigden (Harrison). Learning to read at a young age, Harrison spoke French at age five and studied Latin at age seven (Howard). She received her B.A. in 1959 from Newnham College, the University of Cambridge, where she studied Archaeology and Anthropology and English. Through Caviness’ background in Anthropology, she set her sight on a civil service career in Africa upon graduation.

Director of the Scottish National Gallery and National Portrait Gallery, 1907-1930. Caw was born to James Caw, a draper and Eliza Murray Greenfield (Caw). After attending Ayr Academy, Caw apprenticed in engineering at the West of Scotland Technical College, Ayr between 1883 until 1887 with the intention of becoming an engineer. In 1883 met Sir James Guthrie (1859-1920), and artist and later president of the Scottish Royal Academy.

art historian of American art

French antiquarian; early classifier of ancient works by subject matter. Caylus was born to an old noble family and was exposed to the privileges that aristocratic life offered. He traveled as a boy with the French ambassador to Constantinople and later to Italy and Asia Minor. He spent time in the military as a successful officer, but at the death of Louis XIV in 1715, he resigned his commission to devote himself to art. In 1716, he visited the perilous ancient sites of Smyrna, Ephesos, Colophon and Troad, seldom visited by Europeans.

Academic and painter; wrote dictionary of Spanish art historians in the manner of Vasari. The son of don Francisco Ceán Bermudez and doña Manuela Maria de Cifuentes, Ceán Bermudez was primarily educated in his hometown of Gijón moving to Oviedo where he obtained his baccalaureat in philosophy from a Jesuit college. As his father could not afford sending his son to the university, Ceán Bermúdez put himself in the service of Gaspar de Jovellanos (1744-1811). Jovellanos (who was only five years older than himself), just as the latter was finishing his studies in Alcalá de Henares (1765).

Giotto scholar and film critic; notes about Cecchi's opinions appear in Richard Offner's annotated catalog of the 1937 Mostra Giottesca. He acted as the translator of Italian Painters of the Renaissance by Bernard Berenson. His son (?) is the art historian Alessandro Cecchi.

Mannerist sculptor; his autobiography (Vita) contains evaluations of many renaissance artists. Trained as a goldsmith, Cellini worked primarily as a sculptor. His early work in Pisa on the cathedral (accidentally, he had originally set out for Rome) resulted in a keen knowledge of Roman sculpture via sarcophagi. Finally in Rome by 1519, he dealt in antique medals, gems, and other objects which, according to his autobiography, he routinely discovered.

First director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 1879-1904. Cesnola was born to family of distant Piedmontese nobility. He was trained as a military officer, fighting for the Sardininan Army of Revolution and British in the Crimean War. In 1861 he immigrated to the United States where he married Mary Isabel Reid, the daughter of war hero Commodore Samuel Chester Reid (1783-1861). Cesnola fought in the American Civil War, attaining the rank of colonel in the cavalry. He was captured in 1863 leading a charge of the 4th New York Cavalry at Aldie, Virginia.

Scholar of renaissance art and architecture.

Patronage art historian

French and American Impressionist painting scholar; Brown University Professor of Art and Architecture, 1970-2004. Champa was initially interested in music. He studied the trombone in grade school and toured Europe as part of Yale's marching band. In his academic classes at Yale, Champa studied art history. He graduated from Yale with a BA in 1960, continuing at Harvard where he studied with the art critic Clement Greenberg, and wrote his doctoral degree in 1965 under Frederick B. Deknatel in Impressionism.

Critic and supporter of the French Realist painters. In 1843 Fleury-Husson moved to Paris where he met Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867). In 1844 he joined the journal L'Artiste, writing art criticism under his pseudonym "Champfleury". In an 1848 issue of Le Pamphlet, he was among the first to praise the painting of Gustav Courbet.

Archaeologist and head of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Louvre. Charbonneaux served in World War I at the Macedonian front winning a croix de guerre for his bravery. After the war he returned to Greece as a member of the école française d'Athens. His initial publications were in archaeology, the excavations by the French at Delphi. With Fernand Chapouthier (1899-1953) he published the first report on Malia in 1928, reflecting an interest in the pre-classical.

Harvard University Professor of classical art (primarily sculpture); principal excavator at the Argive Heraeum. Chase graduated from Harvard University class of 1896. He spent two years at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens where he excavated the Argive Heraeum, being awarded an 1897 A. M. from Harvard in the process. He continued working on his Ph.D. at Harvard, spending the 1900-01 year as a master of St. Mark's School in Southborough, MA. In 1900 he was awarded his Ph.D. from Harvard with a dissertation on Greek Shield iconography.

Director of the Old Slave Mart Museum and scholar of African American art history. Judith Wragg Chase was born in 1907 in Augusta, Georgia, to Samuel Alston Wragg (1875-1953) and Emma Louise Sparks (Wragg) (1877-1966). She attended William Smith College (now Hobart and William Smith Colleges) from 1923-1924. From 1924-1927, she studied at Cooper Union Art School and later completed her degree at Syracuse University in 1960.

Scholar of the Renaissance; professor of modern art history at the Sorbonne, 1955-1970, and the Collège de France, 1970-1984. Chastel was the son of Adrien Chastel and his wife, née Morin. He attended the école Normale Supérieure between 1933 and 1938. He trained as an art historian under Henri Focillon at the Sorbonne. Around 1934-1935, Chastel read the essay "Dürer's 'Melancholia I,'" a 1923 publication co-authored by Erwin Panofsky and Fritz Saxl.

architectural history of the castle and fortifications

Scholar of Baroque art He co-authored with Jacques Thuillier two monographs on French painting, one covering the period of art betwen [Jean] Fouquet to Poussin (1963) and the second from Le Nain to Fragonard (1964).

Director of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1948-1968. Cheek was the son of Leslie Cheek, Sr., (d. 1935) and Mabel Wood Cheek. His father's wealth had come investing in the family formula for Maxwell House Coffee, sold to General Foods. The younger Cheek studied art at Harvard University and architecture at Yale and Columbia. He headed the department of fine arts at the College of William and Mary 1937-39, where he was instrumental in getting an honorary award given to Georgia O'Keefe by the college in 1938 and Frank Lloyd Wright.

medievalist; trained in archaeology; studied at école des Chartes and at the Collège de France with Henri Focillon.

Cubist scholar and University of California, Berkeley professor of Art, 1953-79. Chipp was born to George C. Chipp, an executive and Susie Browning (Chipp). He worked as a poster artist in Los Angeles between 1938-41. Chipp served in the U. S. Navy, 1941-45 with distinction, rising to lieutenant and awarded sixteen battle stars as well as the Presidential Unit Citation. In 1944 he married. He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, with a B.A., in 1947, receiving an M.A., in 1948.

Historian of art and literature; wrote a number of influential art history books. Some of his works were translated from Polish to German by the art historians Rosa Schapire.

Architectural historian of ancient civilizations and engineer; Professor at the Polytechnique (Paris). Choisy was the son of an architect. He studied at the École Polytechnique, Paris, from 1861 to 1863 and from 1863 at the École des Ponts et Chaussées, also in Paris. As part of his education, he traveled to Rome and Athens, beginning in 1866 to study classical architectural elements as many students did. His interest was far more sustained by the structure of these ancient monuments than their decorative detail.

Early art historian and classicist; Cranach scholar; immediate precursor to Winckelmann. Christ's family comprised a long line of civil servants. He was diversely educated including painting, etching and sculpting. By 1720 he was studying for state service himself in Jena, taking courses in philosophy, history and the law. After securing a position as a privy secretary in Saxe-Meiningen he began study in Halle in 1726.

semiotics applied to christian iconography

student of Wölfflin

Professor of art and architectural history at the school of architecture in Madrid. He published monographs on the cathedrals of Valladolid and Salamanca. Chueca Goitia authored the thirteenth volume in the important Ars Hispaniae series, Arquitectura del siglo XVI (1953).