First director of both the Los Angeles Museum of Art and the Kimball Art Museum, Fort Worth. Brown's parents were Percy Melville Brown and Hazel Wyatte Brown. His father, an importer, took him on buying trips to South America where the younger Brown gained an appreciation for art. Brown graduated from Bucknell University in 1940, continuing for a master's degree in art history at the Institute for Fine Art, New York University. He married for the first time in 1941. The outbreak of World War II caused Brown to enlist in the U.S. Navy.
Art dealer, art historian, and a pioneer as a woman in the field. Lillian Browse was born in London to Michael Browse and Gladys Amy Browse (née Meredith). At three, she emigrated with her family to South Africa, where her father had launched a career as a racehorse trainer. She attended Barnato Park High School in Johannesburg, then returned to London in 1928 in order to study ballet at the Cecchetti Ballet School. While on tour in 1930, she realized that she would not achieve the success she desired as a dancer and decided to switch careers.
Medievalist at the British Museum, principal scholar of the Sutton Hoo find. Bruce-Mitford was born to the writer and geographer/vulcanologist Charles Eustace Bruce-Mitford (1875-1919), and Beatrice Jean (1873-1956). Bruce-Mitford attended Hertford College, Oxford, as a Baring scholar studying history and graduating in 1936. He began work on a second bachelor's degree in literature, studying fourteenth-century English art under the British Museum manuscript historian Robin Flower (1881-1946).
Classical art scholar and founder of the influential art publishing firm, F. Bruckmann. Bruckmann founded the publishing company F. Bruckmann in Frankfurt in 1858 as a "Verlag für Kunst und Wissenschaft" (Press for art and the sciences). Five years later the company moved to Munich in 1863. Bruckmann's knowledge of both art historians and artists gave him an entre into the field. In 1888 he co-founded the Denkmäler griechischer und römischer Skulptur in historischer Anordung with University of Munich art historian Enrico Brunn.
Specialist in Greek funerary art. Leader of the excavation project of the "Cemetery of Eridanos" next to the Hagia Triada in Athens, 1907-1930.
Modernist art historian; partner with Claes Oldenburg in artworks, 1977-2009. Bruggen's father was a medical doctor who held weekly salons for writers and painters at their home where she and her siblings participated. She studied art history at the Rijks University of Groningen, earning a graduate degree in 1967. Bruggen joined the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam the same year as a curator. She worked with conceptual artists Doug Wheeler, Larry Bell, Jan Dibbets and Ger van Elk, marrying around this time.
Early and important art historian of ancient Greek art. Professor at Munich University, 1865-1894 and director of the Glyptothek. Born the son of a minister, Brunn attended the University of Bonn studying archaeology and philology under Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker and Friedrich Ritschl (1806-1876). His dissertation was on the dating of Greek artists before Alexander. In 1843 he joined the Deutsche Archäologische Institut (German Archaeological Institute or "DAI") in Rome under Emil Braun.
Specialist in classical Greek and Roman art. Bruns was active in the Pergamon excavation at the request of Theodor Wiegand and after a long sickness, a volunteer scientific assistant at museums in Kassel and Braunschweig (1935-1939). She returned to Berlin in 1939 to work in the service of the Antiquities collection in the State Museum of Berlin, rising to the position of Curator in October 1945.
contemporary critic of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc; helped develop a chronology for Romanesque sculpture
Professor of Art History at the University of Amsterdam (1961-1985); lead art historian for the Rembrandt Research Project (RRP) catalogue raisonné, part of the Stichting Foundation Rembrandt Research Project. Bruyn studied art history at Utrecht University. In 1948, before he finished his study, he was involved in cataloging old paintings in the Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller. In 1950 he was appointed assistant at the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum, where he helped prepare the 1952 exhibition Drie eeuwen portret in Nederland (Three centuries of portraiture in the Netherlands).
Medievalist; professor of philosophy. De Bruyne attended high school at the St.-Vincentiuscollege in Ypres. In 1915, when the Germans attacked Ypres in World War I, the family fled to Sées in France (Orne). Here De Bruyne continued his high school education. In September 1916 he joined the Belgian army. After the war De Bruyne enrolled at Louvain University to study philosophy while still serving in the army. After having earned his Bachelor's degree, in 1919, he entered the Benedictine abbey, Regina Coeli, in Louvain. He soon obtained an extended leave from the army.
Author of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
Art historian of French eighteenth-century painting and Harvard University professor. Bryson was born to Edward James Bryson, a director of a large company and Mai Bendon (Bryson), Bryson, a physical therapist. Bryson attended King's College, Cambridge receiving an A M. in 1971. He attended University of California, Berkeley between 1970-72 before completing his Ph.D., at Cambridge in 1977. Beginning in 1976, Bryson taught as a fellow in English at King's College. Bryson burst onto the art historical scene with his 1981 book Word and Image: French Painting of the Ancien Regime.
Wickhoff student (?), illuminated manuscripts specialist.
Curator and Director of the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna di Roma, (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) 1942-1975; first woman art museum director in Italy. Bucarelli studied art history at the University of Rome under Adolfo Venturi and Pietro Toesca. After graduation, she joined the department of Antiquities and Fine Arts, part of the Ministry of Education. She remained at the department as fascism overtook Italy. At the height of World War II, she assumed the directorship of the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome, in 1942.
Medievalist and modernist, Albers scholar. Bucher was born to Aloïs Bucher and Gabrielle Zundel (Bucher). He attended the Zürich Gymnasium Zürich, receiving a B.A., in 1947. After additional graduate study at the universities of Zürich and Rome, Bucher began teaching as a lecturer at the University of Bern, Switzerland in 1952, continuing to work on his Ph.D. He emigrated to the United States where he taught, also as an instructor, at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis between 1953 and 1954. In 1954 he married Elizabeth R.
First Director Wallraf-Rich. Museum. Buchner studied under Heinrich Wölfflin. As the director of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen (Bavarian State Painting Collections), he assisted the Gestapo in the confiscation of Jewish collections. He played a crucial role in the removal of the Gent altarpiece to Germany. After Germany's surrender, he was ismissed from his position in 1945. Buchner was reinstalled in 1953.
Professor of Fine Arts, Institute of Fine Arts, NYU. Buchthal was born to Eugen Buchthal (1878-1954) and Thea Wolff (Buchthal) (1886-1968), wealthy shop owners. The family lived in the "Villa Buchthal" on Berlin's west end (after the war, the home of tenor Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, b. 1925). Buchthal attended the Herder-Reform-Gymnasium in Charlottenberg, graduating in 1927.
Specialist in the sculpture and art of ancient Greece. Professor at the University of Würzburg 1909-1935. His masterwork, Der schöne Mensch im Altertum, appeared in 3 successive editions, and broke with (til then) traditional art history by examining how certain artistic themes were handled and changed over time.
Chinese art authority, Research Associate for Columbia University and British Museum
Peter Paul Rubens scholar. Burchard's father was an apothecary in Mainz, Georg Burchard. Burchard himself attended the Grossherzogliches Gymnasium in Karlsruhe, graduating in 1904. He studied at the universities of Munich, Heidelberg and Halle-Wittenberg. During this time he volunteered at the print room in Dresden and Berlin where he earned the praise of director Wilhelm Bode. Burchard served in the German army in World War I in field artillery. His 1917 dissertation was written at Halle under Adolph Goldschmidt on Rembrandt etchings.
Cultural historian and first professor of art history in Switzerland. Buckhardt was born to a prominent Basel family, his father a respected minister of the Basel cathedral. The younger Burckhardt initially followed his father, studying theology in Basel in 1837. He changed his studies to history and philosophy, after a confessed loss of faith, at the University of Berlin in 1839.
1908-26 Director of Historischen Mus., Basel, Wölfflin student
Artist and professor of art history at the Universities of Heidelberg, Strasbourg, and Munich; exponent of 20th-century art and founder of the modern art-historical encyclopedia. Burger was the son of a banker. He started architectural studies in 1896 in Munich, but cut them short for enrollment in the military the following year. From 1900 onward, he studied art history in Heidelberg. The new art movement of Darmstadt became the subject of his first publication in 1902. He married the daughter of the Heidelberg classicist Friedrich von Duhn the same year.
In 1946, with sponsorship from Sir Keith Murdoch, the Herald Chair of Fine Arts was founded at the University of Melbourne. Burke was its first appointee field of expertise was English 18th-century art. Burke collected a significant group of scholars around him, including Bernard Smith, the first Australian art historian, and Franz Philipp, a German Jewish refugee from Vienna and Ursula Hoff, who held a part-time position as a visiting lecturer in this new department.
Historian of ancient and medieval art; the director of the Index of Christian Art from 1942 to 1951. Burke received his AB (1928), MA (1931), and PhD (1932) from Princeton University, completing the final two years of his graduate work under Erwin Panofsky at the University of Hamburg. He taught at Princeton until 1935, then at Northwestern University (1935-36), and the University of Minnesota (1936-38) before returning to Princeton and the Index directorship.
University of Hamburg professor during the Erwin Panofsky/Wind/Charles de Tolnay years (1930s); party-line Nazi who remained at Hamburg after racial firings. Burmeister studied art history in Bonn with fellow student Aby M. Warburg. He attended lectures in Munich and was one of the eight students from various universities who attended seminars in Florence in 1889 under August Schmarsow who was attempting to found a German research institute in the city.
Nazi art historian; director of the Kunstgeschichtliche Seminar, Universität Hamburg (Art History Seminar at the University of Hamburg); responsible for the exile of many Jewish art historians.
Painter and Curator of Paintings, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1909-34. Burroughs was the son of Major George Burroughs and Caroline Bryson (Burroughs). His family moved to Cincinnati after his father's death. He studied at the Art Students League, NY, between1889-1891, leaving for Paris that year to study at the Academie Julian under Puvis de Chavannes. He married Edith Woodman (1871-1916) in England in 1893. He spent the year 1894 in Florence, returning to the United States in 1895.
Director, National Gallery of Art, London, and artist. Burton was the son of Samuel Frederic Burton (b. 1786), a wealthy landowner in County Limerick an amateur artist, and Hannah Mallet (Burton). The Burtons moved to Dublin in 1826 where Burton entered the Dublin Society's drawing schools, studying under Henry Brocas (1766-1838) the elder and Robert Lucius West (1774-1850). He additionally studied miniatures with Samuel Lover (1797-1868). In 1837, Burton was elected an associate member of the Royal Hibernian Academy and a full member in 1839.
Museum director of Austrian art museums. Ernst Heinrich Buschbeck was born to Helene (née Marbach) and Alfred Buschbeck, the father from a prestigious military family. Buschbeck graduated from the Schottengymnasium in Vienna and after a compulsory year of military service 1907-1908, he studied philosophy and jurisprudence at Lausanne and Vienna. By 1910 he had switched to history and art history, attending lectures in the universities of Berlin (under Heinrich Wölfflin), Halle and Vienna.
Professor at the University of Buenos Aires. In 1945, Buschiazzo and Enrique Marco Dorta director of the art history department at the University of Seville collaborated with Diego Angulo Iñiguez on the ground-breaking work on the history of Spanish colonial art in South America, covering architecture, painting, sculpture, decorative arts, from the evolution of these artistic to the assimilation of Spanish art by the colonies.
Classical archaeologist; one of the first to identify the critical turn in ancient Greek art from the archaic to the classical age as taking place around 500 B.C. Buschor was born into a family of modest means and education. He initially studied law but by 1905 had switched to classical archaeology, attending the university at Munich and studying under Adolf Furtwängler, to whom he was devoted.
Documentary architectural historian of the middle east. Butler was born to Edward Marchant Butler and Helen Belden Crosby (Butler). He was educated privately at the Lyons Collegiate Institute and the Berkeley School in New York, which allowed him to enter Princeton University as a sophomore, class of 1892.
Assistant Keeper of the Tate Museum and Turner scholar.
First curator of modern art at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1946-1952. Byrnes studied to be an artist at various New York city schools including the National Academy of Design, 1936-1938, the American Artists School, 1938-1940 and the Art Students League, 1941-1942. After World War II he was hired at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art to be its first Curator of Modern and Contemporary art in 1946. He taught as a visiting professor at the University of Southern California before attending the University of Perugia and Istituto Meschini, Rome, the latter, 1951-1952.
Professor of Archaeology and Ancient History. Byvanck attended the Gymnasium at The Hague, in which city his father, W.G.C. Byvanck (1848-1925), was librarian at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library). Between 1902 and 1907, he studied classics at Leiden University, and he continued his study in Bonn, Germany, in 1907 and 1908. He was particularly interested in the history of the art of antiquity and made trips to Greece, Egypt and Italy.
French compiler of encyclopedia of medieval iconography
French iconographer of medieval sculpture and decorative arts. Cahier studied at the College of Saint-Acheul. He joined the Jesuit order, ordained as priest, in 1824. Cahier lectured at the Jesuit colleges in Paris, Brieg (in the Swiss Canton of Wallis), Turin, and in Belgium at Brugalette. In the pre-photography days, Cahier began "collecting" medieval monuments, noting their location and iconography with the idea of documenting the Christian (i. e., Roman Catholic) faith via art of the middle ages.
Art museum curator; authority on the folk art of the United States and the arts of Central America; director of the arts division of the WPA. Cahill was born to Bjorn Jonsson and Vigdis Bjarndottir in Iceland but moved with his family shortly after birth to Canada and then North Dakota, USA. Domestic violence and illness broke his family apart and Cahill spent most of his early years working and living in various situations and orphanages in Canada and the United States.
Classical numismatist, professor of classical art and art and coin dealer. Cahn's father was a numismatics dealer, Ludwig Cahn, and his mother Johanna Neuberger (Cahn). As a boy he assisted in compiling the sales catalogs for his father's firm. He studied classical archaeology and philology at the Universität Frankfurt under Ernst Langlotz. With the Nazi rise to power in Germany, Cahn, who was a Jew, emigrated to Switzerland in 1933 and continued his studies at Basle. His brother, Erich B.
Medievalist and professor of the History of Art, Yale University. Cahn's father, Otto Cahn, owned a cigar factory in Lingenfeld, Germany; his mother was Frieda Cahn. His family's synagogue in Karlsruhe was torched on Kristallnacht, 1938, and the family deported by the Nazi's to a detention camp at Gurs, France in 1940. When the family was relocated to a second camp in Rivesaltes (Pyrénées-Orientales), Cahn and his brother were smuggled to Moissac, France, and settled under the éclaireurs Israelites de France. He learned French to better assimilate into the Nazi-occupied country.
semiotics and art history
Author of Notizie sulla vita, 1859-1869, the first great history of Milanese art of the 14th to the 16th century; largely established the canon of early Milanese artists.
Medievalist art historian, University of Chicago professor 1989-2002. Camille was the son of Marcel and Mavis Camille, a working-class couple in Yorkshire. A brilliant child, he was noticed by an English teacher at a time when England was loosening up its thinking of who could be college material.
Professor, museum director, founder of Goya. José Camón Aznar received his bachelor’s degree from the Escuelas Pias de Zaragoza, where his uncle, Reverend Desiderio Aznar, and his brother, Angel Aznar, were professors. He then graduated from the University of Zaragoza with a law degree. There he studied under Spanish writer Domingo Miral y Lopez (1872-1942) and Andres Jimenez Soler (1869- 1938). In 1927, he became the Chair of the Teoría de la literatura y de las artes (Theory of Literature and Arts) department at the University of Salamanca.