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Curator of the Print Room, Bibliothèque nationale. After the death of his father, in 1859, Bouchot's mother and sister moved with him to Tilleroyes, near Besançon, where he later attended the Collège Saint-François-Xavier. He served in the army during the Franco-Prussian war. In 1874 he was admitted at the École des Chartes, where he obtained the diploma of archivist-paleographer. He began, in 1879, a lifelong career at the Print room of the Bibliothèque nationale, as an intern under Henri Delaborde.

Picasso scholar, wrote catalogue raisonne with Pierre Daix.

University of Cincinnati professor of classical art history, 1939-1985. After Boulter received his B.A. from Prince of Wales College in 1930, he continued study at Acadia University, 1933, Johns Hopkins University, 1933-1934, and the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, 1934-1935. At the American School he studied under Carl. W. Blegen (1887-1971). Excavating Troy at Blegen's direction, Boulter uncovered a Mycenaean wall and the remains of what Blegen identified as the Scaean Gate; Boulter received full credit for the discovery. Boulter was awarded his Ph.D.

Scholar of Italian Mannerism, offered a broad definition of Mannerism; influenced by Gustav René Hocke and Max Dvořák.Bousquet's 1964 Mannerism book drew inspiration from a number of earlier scholars on the subject. Dvořák noted that Manneristic subject matter greatly expanded, a fact Bousquet expanded upon. Bousquet also drew from the camp of Mannerist scholars, principally Hocke, who saw these artists as the precursors to surrealism.

Architectural historian and early scholar of female architects who produced the major study of Julia Morgan. Sara Boutelle graduated from Mount Holyoke College. Her education also included the Sorbonne Université and Universität Hamburg. She taught art and architecture at a private all-girls school in New York City, the Brearley School, until her retirement in 1973. During a pleasure visit to the castle-mansion of W. R.

Second director of the National Gallery, London, and artist. Boxall was the son of Thomas Boxall, a civil servant in the tax office. After attending Abingdon grammar school he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1819. He traveled to Italy several times, beginning in 1827-8, 1833-6, and 1845 to study the masterworks of art.

Leader of modern museum conservation practices; historian of Italian art. Brandi graduated in with a law degree from the University of Siena in 1927, but his interests had moved to art so much that he wrote a thesis the following year at the University of Florence on the artists Rutilio Manetti, Francesco Vanni, and Ventura Salimbeni. In 1930 he was assigned to the Administration of Antiquities and the Fine Arts to assist the Inspector (Soprintendenza) of Monuments and Galleries of Siena.

Scholar of French Gothic architecture; Professor at Columbia University, 1957-1973. Branner's father, Martin Michael Branner (1888-1970), was a former Vaudeville star who created the popular newspaper comic strip, "Winnie Winkle" (1920-1962). His mother was Edith Fabbrini (Branner). The younger Branner grew up in New York city, majoring in Classics (Latin) at Yale University. He was drafted into the army in 1945 and served in the European theater. It was there that he gained an appreciation for Gothic architecture.

Collaborator with Rudolf Wittkower at the Herziana on the Drawings of Bernini (1931). His dissertation at the University of Leipzig was on Bernini drawings.

Early French photographer of art history images. He was born in Alsace, Germany, presently known as Dornach, Germany. Braun was the son of Samuel Braus, a police officer stationed in Bresançon. The family moved to Mulhouse (Alsace) in 1822 where Braun grew up. He attended the local école industrielle (he missed attending the Mulhouse design school), completing his trade schooling in Paris, settling there. Initially worked as a fabric designer, setting up his own business in 1834 with his brother.

First secretary of the Archaeological Institute of Rome (1840-1856). First to publish the François Vase after its finding and assembly.

Medievalist architectural historian. Braunfels' father was the composer Walter Braunfels (1882-1954) and his uncle was the sculptor and theorist Adolf von Hildebrand (1847-1921). Braunfels studied art history and literature history at the universities of Cologne, Paris (under Henri Focillon, Florence and finally in Bonn at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. At Bonn he studied art history under Paul Clemen and literature history the eminent philologist Ernst Robert Curtius (1886-1956).

Director of the Los Angeles County Museum, 1946-1951. Breasted was the son of James Henry Breasted (1865-1935), the Egyptologist who founded the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute. At age fourteen, together with his father and older brother, he was one of the first to enter the recently opened tomb of Tutankhamen ("King Tut"), negotiating the inner chambers first because of his youthful size.

Assistant Director of the Metropolitan Museum and curator of Decorative Arts during the installation of the Cloisters Museum. Breck was the son of Joseph Francis Breck (d. 1929) and Annie Hayes Breck (d.1933). His father owned an agricultural seed and implement company in Massachusetts. While a student at Harvard University, he met Herbert Eustis Winlock, a future director of the Metropolitan. The two became close associates during their time together at the museum. At Harvard, he worked on the Harvard Lampoon where talents in art emerged.

late antique and medieval art, Northwestern U

Director of the Mauritshuis museum, 1889-1909, connoisseur and art collector. Bredius was raised in a wealthy family. His father was Johannes Jacobus Bredius a director of a powder factory in Amsterdam. His family collected Chinese porcelain and 17th-century Dutch paintings, which Bredius would build upon. His mother died when he was only ten. Early in his career, he intended to become a concert pianist, but realized after three years of study that he would never become an outstanding musician.

First woman to direct a major American art museum (Baltimore Museum of Art); Cassatt scholar. Breeskin was the daughter of Alfred Robert Louis Dohme (1867-1952) and Emmie Blumner (Dohme). Her father was a chemist who founded the pharmaceutical company Sharpe & Dohme (later Merck, Sharpe & Dohme). The younger Dohme attended the Bryn Mawr preparatory school in Baltimore, initially planning on being an artist. After stints at Bryn Mawr and Radcliffe Colleges, she eventually graduated from Boston's School of Fine Arts, Crafts, and Decorative Design in 1918.

Medievalist focusing n Byzantine and Romanesque sculpture. Method similar to Jurgis Baltrušaitis II; strong iconography; professor at l'Université de Clermont

Professor and librarian. Breitenbach studied art history as well as German and Scandinavian literature at the university in Munich and then Hamburg where his professors were Erwin Panofsky and Fritz Saxl. His dissertation, completed in Strassburg in 1929 under Panofsky, was Speculum humanae salvationis: eine typengeschichtliche Untersuchungen. He worked as a Library assistant at the Warburg Library in Hamburg 1926-27.

The van Gogh scholar J.-B. de la Faille studied under Bremmer. Independent art educator and adviser; van Gogh and Dutch artists scholar. Bremmer received his primary education at a boarding school in Roermond and attended high school in Leiden, where his parents owned a hotel (Hotel Rijnland). He also took classes with the painter D. L. Kooreman. In 1889 he left school and enrolled at the Teeken- en Schilderacademie (Academy for Drawing and Painting) in The Hague. He quit after one year and together with some friends he rented a studio in Leiden.

Archaeologist and art historian; specialist in ancient Greek, Roman and Etruscan art. Brendel's father was a church minister in Nuremberg, Bavaria and the younger Brendel retained a lifelong interest in theology himself. He attended the Neues Gymnasium where he early on developed an interest in classical studies. As a youth he joined the Wandersvogel youth, hiking and singing in the German countryside during the years of economic hardship of the first World War. He painted and played both the cello and piano as part of evening's entertainment with his family.

Brettell was born in Rochester, New York.  When he was eight his family moved to Denver, Colorado, and spent his formative years there. He entered Yale University, intent on studying molecular biophysics until hearing professor George Kubler speak, changing his mind to study art history. Brettell received his Bachelor's and Master's, degrees from Yale. At Yale, Brettell met Zoe Caroline Bieler (b. 1950), a graduate student in cultural anthropology, who he married in 1973. He mounted his first art installation, a photography exhibition at Yale, the same year.

University of Toronto professor and early Courtauld Institute scholar. Brieger was born in Breslau, Silesia, Prussia, which is present-day Wroclaw, Poland. Brieger was born to Oskar Brieger, (d. 1914), an otolaryngologist and Hedwig Lion. He grew up in this affluent family under the tutelage of a governess, surrounded by books, and a summer home where his father had built a home theater for family drama productions. Their furniture was designed by Hans Poelzig (now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University). As a child, he attended the St. Maria Magdalena Gymnasium.

Curator at the musée de Versailles; gave lessons on the great art collections of the 17th and 18th centuries (in the tradition of Edmond Bonnafé) and at the Ecole du Louvre. His students (though not particularly inspired by him) included Charles Sterling. He was part of a group of scholars centered around Louis-Charles-Léon Courajod, including Paul Vitry, Jean Joseph Marie Anatole Marquet de Vasselot, and Raymond Koechlin.

Mannerism in Bologna

Architectural historian; his Baroque Architecture (1913) was one of the early texts to favorably treat the subject. Briggs was born to a Congregational minister, Rev. G. S. Briggs. After attending Mill Hill School, north London, and Leeds University, he moved to London to practice architecture. There he became a member of the RIBA in 1905, designing several buildings and lecturing at the Bartlett School of Architecture, London University. He published a travelogue, In the Heel of Italy in 1910, and married Constance Rose.

Scholar of Roman art; Anna S. Garbedian Professor in the Humanities and Professor of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University (1970- ). Brilliant was born to Frank Brilliant and Pauline Apt (Brilliant); his father a businessman and his mother a social worker. He attended Yale University receiving a B. A. in 1951. The same year he married Eleanor Luria (later a professor of social work at Rutgers University). Brilliant next attended Harvard Law School, receiving an LL.B. in 1954 and was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1954 as well.

First director of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Brimmer was the son of Martin Brimmer, a former mayor of Boston. He entered Harvard University at age 16, graduating in the class of 1849. Although he obtained a law degree, Brimmer never practiced and was exempted from military service because of lameness. Instead, he served politics as a representative for the Massachusetts legislature in 1859-61 and in the state senate in 1864. Brimmer served the Boston Museum at the same time as Luigi Palma di Cesnola did the rival Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Berlin art historian and early exponent of the study of Baroque art. Brinckmann's father was an architect; the younger Brinckmann learned the elements of architecture as a youth. He studied art history and archaeology at the universities of Munich and Berlin. He wrote his dissertation under Heinrich Wölfflin. His dissertation employs methodology of developmentalism and psychology of his mentor. In 1909 he became an assistant at the Technische Hochschule in Aachen, completing his habilitation a year later on Renaissance city planning, dedicated to Wölfflin.

Modern art champion in Germany, first director of the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg. He married Ida Laura Anna Marie von Froschauer in 1868. Plans for the museum were formulated from 1873 to 1875 thorugh a design of Carl Johann Christian Zimmermann. The Museum was opened in 1877, located on Steintorplatz, officially known as the Staatliches Technikum und Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe (State Center for Technology and Msueum of Fine and Useful Arts). Brinckmann collected a wide range of objects for the museum, from Renaissance painting to Viennese furniture to Japanese prints.

Medieval stained glass scholar; student of Louis Grodecki, succeeded him at Musée des Plans-Reliefs.

Architectural historian of the Gothic in England, topographer; earlier serious scholar of medieval architecture. Britton's parents were Henry Britton, who worked as a farmer, baker, and village shopkeeper, and Anne Hillier (Britton). After his mother's death, Britton left school with only a remedial education to assist his father's business. He moved from Wiltshire to London in 1787 working at the Jerusalem tavern, Clerkenwell, but studying in his off hours. In 1789 he met Edward Wedlake Brayley (1773-1854) at a bookshop who hired him to assist in book publication.

Italian art historian and Professor of medieval and modern art at University of Turin and University of Milan; Scholar of Leonardo da Vinci.

Archaeologist and art historian of Etruscan and prehistory. Brizio studied and excavated at the sites of Pompeii and the Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) in Rome. His association with Enrico Brunn at the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) taught him formal analysis of Greek art, the basis for his later art history. He traveled to Greece in 1874. In 1876 he was named chair at the University of Bologna for archaeology and numismatics. His lectures exposed his students to the German stylistic analysis.

Scholar of renaissance art; documentary approach. In 1902 Brockhaus found a 17th-century copy of Apollonio di Giovanni's and Marco del Buono's workshop book, a fragmentary record of commissions. This led to its publication by Paul Schubring in 1915. This in turn made possible the idenitification of Apollonio di Giovanni (di Tomaso), also known as the Dido Master or Master of the Jarves Cassoni.

Curator of the Cook Collection, Doughty House and Flemish art scholar. Brockwell was the son of the Reverend Cannon J. C. Brockwell of Sheffield Cathedral. He was educated at St. Paul's Cathedral Choir School and Hurstpierpoint (preparatory school). He traveled widely in Europe, after which he secured a position with Charles Holroyd, Director of the National Gallery, rewriting official catalog entries. He also wrote a book for the Board of Trustees on the NGA's Lewis bequest.

Professor of aesthetics and art history (1923-1946) at Nijmegen University. Brom was named after his father, Gerard Bartholomeus Brom, a blacksmith of liturgical objects, who had died before Brom jr. was born. His elder brother, Jan Hendrik, took over his father's firm. Brom, who was raised in a Catholic family, attended the Gymnasium of the Bisschoppelijk College in Roermond. After graduation he began medical studies in 1899 at Utrecht University, but a year later switched to Dutch language and literature.

Major scholar of the Parthenon sculpture; associated with the Nazi years of the DAI. During the years when the DAI (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut) in Athens was under Nazi control, he served there under Walther Wrede. He received his Ph.D., from the University of Munich. In 1956 he edited the Corpus vasorum antiquorum volumes of the holdings at the Schloss Fasanerie, Adolphseck. Beginning in 1963, Brommer undertook a systematic publication of the entire Parthenon sculpture.

Archaeologist, museum administrator and early scholar of Greek sculpture and vases. Brøndsted's parents were Christian Brøndsted (1742-1823), a minister, and Mette Augusta Pedersen (1758-1832). He studied theology at the university in Copenhagen, graduating in 1802 and additional years studying philology at the same institution, for which he was awarded a gold medal in 1804. Through his friend, the philologist Georg H. C. Koës (1782-1811), he met Koës' sister, Frederikke, whom Brøndsted became engagued.

Architectural historian of ancient Greece, field archaeologist and University of Chicago professor; discovered the Sanctuary of Poseidon in Isthmia. Broneer was the youngest son of a Swedish farmer. As a child he labored on the family farm until age 18 when he and his brother left for the United States in 1913. He initially planned to remain in the U. S. only long enough to earn money return to Sweden and start a successful life. After a few years, Broneer attended Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois, now planning a career in the seminary.

Historian of 18th and 19th century French painting. Brookner was born to Newson Bruckner, a Polish immigrant, and Maude Schiska (Bruckner), a British singer whose grandfather was originally from Warsaw, Poland.  Fearful of the German-sounding last name, her mother changed their family name to Brookner as World War II began. Although secular Jews, the Brookners took in Jewish refugees fleeing the Germans during the 1930s and World War II.  Brookner attended a private school, the James Allen's Girls' School.

Feminist art historian of nineteenth-century art. Broude's parents were Jack Freedman and Cecile Goldman (Freedman). Freedman graduated from Hunter College, City University of New York in 1962 with an A. B. The same year she married Ronald Broude. Freedman, now Broude, continued on to Columbia University, using a Woodrow Wilson fellowship for the 1962-1963 year to write her M.A. in 1964. She wrote her dissertation under Theodore Reff on the proto-impressionist painters of Italy, the Macchiailoli, in 1967.

Establisher of the first Art History program and Art Museology courses in the United States. Alice Van Vechten Brown was the daughter of Samuel Gilman Brown (1813-1885), a professor at Dartmouth College and former president of Hamilton College, and Sarah Van Vechten (Brown)(1819-1893). Her grandfather Francis Brown was the third president of Dartmouth College. From 1881 to 1885, Brown studied at Art Students League, New York, under William M. Chase, the founder of the Parsons School of Design.

Classicist and curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1942-1967. Levine was the daughter of Samuel Levine and Bertha Nanes (Levine). She attended Wayne University (the modern Wayne State University) between 1932 and 1934 before switching to New York University. She graduated with a B. F. A in 1936, continuing for her master's degree at the university's Institute of Fine Arts with a thesis on Greek painted grave stelai, written under Karl Leo Heinrich Lehmann in 1938. She married the art historian Milton W. Brown the same year.

Third director of the National Gallery of Art, Washgington, D. C. Brown was descended from a long, distinguished family line beginning in 1638 in Rhode Island and for whose family Brown University is named. Brown's father, John Nicholas Brown (1900-1979), was one of the wealthiest men in America and his mother, Anne Kinsolving, a musician and music critic. John Nicholas Brown attended the famous connoisseurship classes of Paul J. Sachs at Harvard classes with John Walker III, another future National Gallery of Art director and J.

First Watson Gordon chair of fine art at Edinburgh University (first chair of fine arts in the British Isles) 1880-1930; early monuments preservationist. Brown's father was a minister, James Baldwin Brown (1820-1884) and his mother, Elizabeth Leifchild (Brown). His uncle was the sculptor Henry Leifchild (1823-1884). After attending Uppingham School, he earned a scholarship to Oriel College, Oxford, in 1869. He graduated with a degrees in classics in 1871 and literae humaniores (humanities) in 1873.

Scholar of Spanish art and Caroll and Milton Petrie Professor of Fine Arts, New York University, (professor from 1973-). Brown was the son of son of Leonard M. Brown and Jeanette Levy Brown (Brown). While an undergraduate at Dartmouth College, Brown spent a year in Madrid where he became fascinated with the painter Velázquez. A chance reading of the 1948 Velázquez book by the art philosopher Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955) lead to a life-long interest in the painter and Spanish art. He graduated from Dartmouth with an A. B. in 1960. He continued at Princeton for an M. F.

Marxist-methodology Americanist art historian. Brown's father was Samuel Brown and his mother Celia Hamilton (Brown), Jewish grocers owners in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn. He studied art privately under painter and printmaker Louis Lozowick (1892-1973) before attending New York University where he graduated with a B.A. 1932, intent on becoming a public school teacher. He continued at NYU for his M.A., studying under Walter Friedlaender, Erwin Panofsky and Meyer Schapiro.