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Art historian of medieval and the early Renaissance art and historiography. Bober was born to Hyman and Fanny Newman (Bober) and raised in Brooklyn, NY. His parents were eastern European Jews who had emigrated to the United States before World War I. In Brooklyn he attended Boy's High School, the public grade school, before entering the City University of New York to become an artist. There he met George W. Eggers, the chair of the CUNY art department, who steered him from studio art to art history.

Scholar of Renaissance art and its relationship to classical antiquity and Leslie Clark Professor in the Humanities at Bryn Mawr College. Pray was the daughter of Melvin Francis Pray and Lea Arlene Royer (Pray), of French-Canadian ancestry. She graduated from Cape Elizabeth High School in Portland in 1937, continuing to Wellesley College in where she received a B. A. in 1941 (majored in art and minored in Greek).

Director of the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett under Wilhelm Bode.In 1930, Bock and Jakob Rosenberg published the complete catalogue of Dutch drawings at the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett. It includes all Flemish and Dutch schools from around 1420 to 1800. Not included, however, are the works acquired after 1930. He resigned because of poor health in 1933 and died shortly thereafter. He was succeeded by Friedrich Winkler.

Giotto and Renaissance art scholar. His unfinished manuscript on Giotto's arena chapel was completed after his death by Robert Oertel.

Director General of all Prussian museums 1906-1920 and major influence on German art history in the early twentieth century; scholar of Dutch 17th-century painting and Italian Renaissance painting and sculpture. Bode hailed from an illustrious German family. His grandfather, Wilhelm Julius Bode (1779-1854), had been the director of city of Braunschweig, Germany. His father, Wilhelm Bode (1812-1883) was a judge and administrator for the Duke of Braunschweig.

Student of Henry Thode at Heidelberg and school friend of Wilhelm Rheinhold Otto Valentiner. He published articles in the contemporary art journal Pan, founded by Julius Meier-Graefe.

Director of the National Gallery of Ireland (1927-1935) and first director of the Barber Institute (museum). Bodkin was the son of Matthias McDonnell Bodkin (1849-1933) and Arabella Norman (Bodkin) (d. 1931). His father was a journalist and later judge for County Clare, Ireland, and then Member of Parliament for North Roscommon. Bodkin attended Belvedere College and Clongowes Wood College before graduating from the Royal University of Ireland in 1908. He began practicing law in 1911.

Scholar of the Italian baroque and renaissance; responsible for introducing Otto Kurz to Denis Mahon in the 1930s.

Scholar of early medieval iluminated manuscript. Böckler studied art history at the university in Berlin under the medievalist art historian Adolph Goldschmidt. He remained a friend of his mentor his entire life. His 1921 dissertation was on a Stuttgart Passionale (manuscript) of Hirsau held in the Württembergische Landesbibliothek which Böckler selected as an example of a document from a South German monastic reform movement. After graduation, Böckler joined the Preussische Staatsbibliothek (Berlin State Library).

Specialist in archaic (Greek and Germanic) art. Director of the Kgl. Museum Fridericianum (Kassel, 1902-1928) and was primary motivating force behind the reorganization of exhibits, the construction of the Hessiches Landesmuseum, and artistic and cultural life in Kassel until 1930.

Specialist in classical Greek and Roman iconography, and president of the deutsches archäologisches Institut (German Archaeological Institute, or DAI) 1954-1960. Decorated during military service in World War I, a member of the circle around Stefan George, and the model for George's poem "Einem jungen Führer im Ersten Weltkrieg." A student of Theodor Wiegand, and also his assistant at the Pergamon excavation 1927-1931. Began teaching at the University of Greifswald in 1934, and was appointed ordinary Professor there in 1943.

Etruscan scholar; co-authored original Pelican History of Art volume on Etruscan architecture. Boëthius was born to a family with a long tradition in ecclesiastical traditions. He attended the university of Uppsala (with periods also at the university in Berlin), initially in Greek studies before changing to ancient Italy. He received his Ph.D. from Uppsala in 1918. He was a lecturer there (1919-25) and also at the British School in Athens. He assisted in the excavations of Mycenae, 1921-24.

Director of several major North American art museums and Degas scholar. Boggs was the daughter of Oliver Desmond Boggs and Humia Marguerite Sutherland (Boggs). She was raised in Canada. Boggs studied at the University of Toronto, receiving her B.A. in 1942. She continued to Radcliffe College for her A.M. in 1947. She worked briefly at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in the 1940s as well. While completing her Ph.D., she taught at Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, as an assistant professor of art, 1948-1949 and then Mount Holyoke College, with the same rank, 1949-1952.

Architect who worked on the Pergamon excavation (1879-1881), and determined the original architectural form of the Pergamon altar.

UCLA professor of art history, patronage scholar of Marxist methodology; political activist. Boime's father was Max Boime, a salesman, and his mother Dorothy Rubin (Boime), both eastern European Jewish immigrants. His father worked in the Brooklyn naval yards during World War II. The younger Boime, his interest in art stemming from cartooning, joined the U.S. Army in 1955 and was stationed in Germany. After discharge in 1958, he entered the University of California, Los Angeles, B.A., graduating in 1961. He continued to Columbia University, receiving his M.A., in 1963.

Art critic, novelist, journalist, and essayist. Du Bois was born to African-American couple Alfred Du Bois (c. 1835-c.1906), a barber born in Haiti, and Mary Silvina Burghardt (Du Bois) (c. 1831-1885) in Massachusetts. After receiving his bachelor's degree from Fisk University in 1888, Du Bois continued his studies at Harvard College, enrolling as a junior and receiving his second bachelor's degree in 1890, followed by his MA in 1891 and Ph.D. in 1895. His thesis was on the African Slave Trade in the United States.

Collector and collaborator on catalogs of German and Netherlandish paintings with his brother Sulpiz. Melchior came from an old wealthy family who hoped he would become a scientist and his older brother, Sulpiz Boisserée, run the family business. The two were raised during the Napoleonic occupation of Cologne. Through his friend Johann B. Bertram he and Sulpiz became interested in art and especially that of the medieval era, a period well represented by the so-called Cologne school of painting, though much under appreciated.

Collector and architectural historian, who, with his brother, Melchior, introduced a romantic conception to art history. Sulpiz came from an old wealthy family who hoped he would follow in the family business (and that his brother, Melchior Boisserée, would become a scientist). The two were raised during the Napoleonic occupation of Cologne. Sulpiz attended school in Hamburg but returned to Cologne in 1799. Through his friend Johann B.

Quattrocentist art historian. In 1954 he organized, in collaboration with his friend Raffaello Causa launched the original exposition "Scultura lignea" and the important catalog, Sculture lignee nella Campania.

Author of Vite dei pittori ed artefici bolognesi, (1841-3), modernist revision of Bolognese artists dictionary.

Architectural historian; curator of Sir John Sloan's Museum; co-founder of the Wren Society. Bolton was the son of Thomas Bolton (1819-1895), a lawyer, and Emily Wildman (1831-1906). He attended Haileybury College before entering University College, London, in 1882. In 1884 he apprenticed to the architect Sir Robert W. Edis (1839-1927), continuing to study architecture at the Architectural Association between 1885 and 1888. He formed his own private practice in 1890 designing minor works and some county home estates and gardens.

Architectural historian; published first standard work on the English Gothic. Bond was educated at King Edward's Grammar School, London and Lincoln College, Oxford. He lectured, mostly on Gothic architecture at the Oxford University extension Delegacy, beginning in 1893. He retired in 1914. He was headmaster of the Hull and East Riding College.Bond was more of a serious scholar than T. Francis Bumpus. His work lacks the charm of Edward S. Prior (Watkin).

Director and chief curator of the Montreal Museum of Arts. Nathalie Bondil was born in Barcelona on February 19th, 1967, and raised in Morocco. She obtained her degree in museology and art history with specializations in sculpture and 19th century to modern art from the École du Louvre in 1992, before matriculating to l’Institut national du patrimoine, a French academy that trains curators and conservators, in 1994.

Archaeologist; wrote works on Column of Trajan and decorative art. Boni was orphaned early and attended a commercial school in Venice. At nineteen, he assisted in the Doge's Palace restoration, but quarreled with the superintendent of the project, Forcinelli, over the restoration. This led to a crusade against over-zealous restoration. In the course of these activities, he corresponded with John Ruskin and William Morris (1834-1896). He entered the Venice Academy, studying architecture.

Medievalist art historian. Together with André Grabar his work documented how the dehumanized styles of late Roman Constantinian art led directly to to the spiritualized de-corporal images of the middle ages.

Poet, literary critic and historian whose work became representative of the so-called New Art History. Bonnefoy was born to [Marius] élie Bonnefoy (1888-1936), a railroad worker, and Hélène Maury (Bonnefoy) (1889-1972), a teacher. As a child he spent summers at his grandfather's house in the southern France town of Toirac, near the River Lot. His father died when Bonnefoy was just thirteen, affecting the boy deeply. Bonnefoy graduated with honors from the Lycée Descartes in 1941, continuing study at the Université de Poitiers, 1942, in mathematics.

Architectural historian of the medieval era and professor of art, UC-Berkeley, 1962-1980. Bony was the son of Henri Bony and Marie Normand (Bony). Bony's first degree at the Sorbonne was in geography and history (Agregation d'histoire et de geographie) in 1933. As a student in art history in 1929, Bony worked under the Sorbonne's Henri Focillon, the French medievalist responsible for incorporating German methodologies into French scholarship.

Director of the Amsterdam Rijksprentenkabinet; connoisseur of drawings and prints. Boon studied art history at Amsterdam University, with professor Ferrand Whaley Hudig (1883-1937), and at the Sorbonne in Paris. He finished his studies at the école du Louvre with a thesis on the relationship between the School of Cologne and Netherlandish painting in the second half of the fifteenth century, Les rapports entre l'école de Cologne et la peinture néerlandaise dans la deuxième moitié du quinzième siècle.

Scholar of Moorish and Moroccan art; librarian at the public library of Toronto. Boothe was also a member of the ALA (American Library Association) and served on its Adult Education Roundtable in the 1940s. During her life, she lived in Canada and Geneva, Switzerland.

Egyptian archaeologist; discoverer of the Nefertiti bust and expert and Old Kingdom temples. Borchardt was the son of a Jewish Berlin merchant, Hermann Borchardt (1830-1890) and Bertha Levin (Borchardt) (1835-1910). He studied architecture in Berlin between 1883-1887, intent on becoming an architect. He switched to Egyptology, training under the renowned Egyptologist Adolf Erman (1854-1937). In 1895 he joined the department of Egyptian art at the Berlin Museum. Under the auspices of the Prussian Academy of Sciences he traveled to Egypt, excavating Aswan.

Chief curator Musées royaux d'Art et d'Histoire/Koninklijke musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis, Brussels. De Borchgrave was the son of Frédéric de Borchgrave d'Altena (1864-1932) and Marie-Clémentine Blanckart (1869-1960). The family lived in the castle of Lexhy in Horion-Hozémont, near Liège. De Borchgrave earned his doctoral degree in archaeology and art history at the University of Liège under Marcel Laurent. In 1924 he joined in Brussels the Musées royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, directed by Jean Capart.

Italian Renaissance scholar, dealer, and art magazine editor. Borenius was the son of Carl Borenius, a member of the Finnish Diet. Borenius was educated at the Swedish Lyceum and before Helsinki University (Helsingfors), then Berlin and Rome. In Helsinki, he studied under J. J. Tikkanen. After receiving his Ph.D. in Helsingfors in 1909, he moved to London where he published a version of his dissertation, Painters of Vincenza (1909). The same year he married Anne-Marie Rüneberg (1885-1976, granddaughter of the Finnish poet J. L. Rüneberg (1807-1877).

student of Heinrich Wölfflin and Goldschmidt, the Kunsthalle (Hamburg)

Wrote the celebrated, Il riposo di Raffaele Borghini in cui della pittura e della scultura si favella, de' più famose opere loro si fa menzione, e le cose principali appartenenti a dette arti s' insegnano in 1584. The fourth section contains important information on the artistic and cultural world of Florence. Borghini relied mainly on Vasari, and is considered Vasari's successor.

Architect and professor of Architecture at University of California, Berkeley. Born initially worked as a San Francisco architect and draftsman. He met Walter W. Horn, a UC Berkeley medievalist who asked him to assist with drawings for Horn's publications on medieval architecture. Beginning in 1960, Born and Horn began collaborating on the measurement of medieval buildings, publishing several studies of related Cistercian buildings in England and France. Born went on to a career in architectural history at Berkeley through Horn's encouragement.

Byzantine and Russian art specialist, later historian of 19th- and 20th-century painting (U.S. career). Born was born in Breslau, Silesia, Prussia, which is present-day Wroclaw, Poland. Born's parents were Gustav Born (1850-1900), a professor of anatomy and embryology at the University in Breslau, and Berthe Lipstein (Born). Born served in World War I in the sanitary corps. After the war he married Susi Bial in 1918 studying studio art at schools between 1919-1923 in Munich and under Édouard Vuillard in Paris.

Art dealer and Director of the Galerie für Alte Kunst in Munich during the Nazi era. Bornheim purchased numerous artworks for Hermann Goering as he was under Goering's protection, together with Kajetan Mühlmann who held the title The Special Commissioner for the Safekeeping of Works of Art in the Occupied Territories.

Architect and archaeologist. he was born in what was Germany and is now Graudenz, Poland. His students included Paul Zucker.

Scholar of Renaissance art at the Center for Italian Renaissance Studies, Harvard. Borsook was the daughter of Henry Borsook (1897-1984), a renowned biochemist, and Lisl Hummel (Borsook). The year she was born, her father joined the Department of Biology at California Institute of Technology. She attended Vassar College, receiving her B.A in art history in 1949. The same year, Borsook won a competition given by Harper's Bazaar (magazine) the same year and entered New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, as a graduate student.

Leading Venetian writer on art in the seventeenth century; wrote a patriotic and polemical defense of Venetian painting, La carta del navegar pittoresco, (The Map of Painting's Journey), 1660). Le ricche miniere della pittura veneziana, 1674, (The Rich Mines of Venetian Painting). Boschini writing, like Ridolfi's, countered Vasari's claims that Florence was the birthplace of Renaissance art. However, Boschini's books were more orderly and well-thought-out than Ridolfi's.

Del Cenacolo di Leonardo da Vinci, 1810; secretary to the Accademia di Brera, 1801-1807. He was responsible for their inclusion in the Pinacoteca di Brera, his most famous acquisitions include Raphael's Marriage of the Virgin (1504) and the Virgin and Child by Giovanni Bellini (1460).

Americanist and art magazine editor; infamous for his anti-modernist stance on American art. Boswell's father Peyton Boswell, Sr. (1879-1936), was an art columnist for the New York Tribune and later founder of the magazine Art Digest. His mother was Bessie Boswell. Boswell attended Rutgers graduating in 1926. The same year, his father founded the journal Art Digest. The younger Boswell worked as a sports journalist in Santa Fe, NM. In 1929 he returned to assumed the assistant art editor position at the Art Digest.

Curator at the Louvre; art collector. Both de Tauzia, commonly known as Tauzia, had a Dutch grandmother, Suzanne-Marie Both, whose name, Both, was added to his father's family name. An earlier scion of the Both family, Pieter Both, was the first governor of the Dutch East Indies (1610-1614). Tauzia's father, Pierre-Paul Both de Tauzia (1778-1843) was a royalist in the service of the city of Bordeaux. Between 1828 and 1830 he was administrator of the royal lottery. Tauzia's mother was Jeanne Fayt. The young Tauzia spent his early youth in Bordeaux.

Professor of Egyptian art at New York University and Egyptian Department chairman at the Brooklyn Museum. Bothmer studied Egyptology at the universities of Berlin and Bonn. In 1932 he joined the Egyptian Department of the state museums in Berlin where he remained until 1938. The Anschluss forced Bothmer to leave Nazi Germany because of his beliefs. In the United States, Bothmer initially worked for the War Department in its Office of War Information early in World War II, moving to Army Intelligence in Europe until 1946.

Classicist art historian and vase expert, Metropolitan Museum of Art Curator of Greek and Roman Art. Born to an aristocratic Hanover family, Bothmer worked as a youth for the German-Expressionist artist and sculptor Erich Heckel. His older brother, Bernard von Bothmer joined the Berliner museums in 1932 as an Egyptologist and the younger Bothmer decided on a museum career himself. He studied one year at the Friedrich Wilhelms Universität in Berlin before receiving a Cecil Rhodes Foundation grant to study in Oxford in 1938. In Oxford he met J. D.

Wrote a new edition of Il riposo di Raffaele Borghini in cui della pittura e della scultura si favella (1730) of Raffaele Borghini and wrote the Dialoghi sopra le tre arti del disegno, published 1754.

Historian of pre-Christian art; developed the idea that prehistoric objects could be measured by periods of geologic time in which they were imbedded. Boucher de Perthes was appointed the director of the customhouse at Abbeville in 1825. Like many educated people in the nineteenth century, his hobby was archaeology. He spent his spare time digging in the nearby Somme valley. By 1837, his discoveries included flint hand axes and other tools lodged in the bones of mammals known to be extinct.