Browse Entries

Published study of Dutch still life.

Museum curator, authority on early Christian, Byzantian, Islamic and early Nordic art and textiles. Berliner's parents were Theodor Berliner, a protestant from Jewish extraction, who owned a factory, and Philippine Wollner (Berliner). Beginning in 1904, Berliner studied art history in Berlin, Heidelberg and Vienna under Max Dvořák, earning his doctorate in 1910 with a dissertation on the dating of a Greek manuscript miniature painting.

Theoretician, Philosophische Kunstwissenschaft (1913)

Medievalist art historian and professor; wrote on phenomenology. Bernheimer was born into a prominent family of art dealers, Bernheimer of Munich. In the early 20th century, the firm was one of the most important dealerships in precious materials, antiquities, Gobelins and oriental carpets.

Classical iconographer, published the first "scientific" modern iconography of Greek and Roman portraiture.

Author of a pioneering study on medieval southern Italian art; professor of art history. Bertaux attended the Institut Sainte-Croix at Neuilly and the Lycée Condorcet in Paris. At the École normale supérieure, where he was a student from 1888 to 1891, he earned the degree of agrégé de lettres. After his military service he studied the art of the Italian renaissance under Eugène Müntz in Paris. In 1893 he enrolled at the École française de Rome, housed at the Palazzo Farnese.

His La Madonna di Santa Maria in Trastevere redated a pivotal panel of painting in the church from the sixth to the eighth century, arguing against the dating of Cesare Brandi. Brandi's date has subsequently proven correct.

Kurt Badt student, Cezanne scholar.

Mannerism; Renaissance Italy; studied the studiolo of Francesco I, Grand-Duke of Tuscany.

notes about Bertini Calosso's opinions on Giotto appear in Richard Offner's annotated catalog of the 1937 Mostra Giottesca.

Collector and romantic-era historian of German medieval art.

Published the volume on Velazquez in the Prado Museum, in the "Art in Spain" series by the Hispanic Society of America.

Architectural historian and Director of Germanischen Nationalmuseums (Germanic Museum) in Nuremberg. Bezold studied architecture and art history at the technical college (Technische Hochschule) of Munich between 1868-73. In 1873 he secured a job as architect and technical assistant, and later on as planning engineer, at the Bavarian railroad. Between 1887-94 he lectured as a privatdozent at the Hochschule, and together with Berthold Riehl, worked on the inventory of art monuments in Bavaria.

Scholar of Renaissance and Baroque art history, Director of the Warsaw Museum of Fine Arts. Bia?ostocki was born to Jan Bia?ostocki (Sr.), a musician and composer and Walentya Wereninow. In 1928 the family moved to Grodzisk Mazowiecki (Poland). He grew up in Poland during the years of ever-increasing German dominance and finally invasion. His first art-history article was a piece on Mattias Grünewald published in 1938.

Marxist art historian of Roman art. Bianchi Bandinelli was descended from ancient aristocracy in Siena. His father, Mario Bianchi Bandinelli (1859-1930), was a one-time mayor of Siena and land baron whose forebears included Pope Alexander III (served 1159-1181). His mother, Margherita Ottilie "Lily" von Korn (Bianchi Bandinelli) (1878-1905) was German from minor noble lineage. He attended the liceo Guicciardini in Siena before entering the University in Rome in 1918, studying archaeology. His early research focused on the Etruscan centers close to his family lands.

Early developer of cat. rais. for antiquity.

doctor, scientist, scholar, art historian; purchased Raphael's Sistine Madonna (c. 1512-14), in 1753 for the Dresden Gemäldegalerie, wrote important monographs on Piranesi (1779), Mengs ( 1780) and antiquarian work, Descrizione dei circhi particolarmente di quello di Caracalla (1789).

Early collector of artists' biographies; rhetorician; notary. De Bie was born in the city of Lier near Antwerp in 1627. His father, Adrianus, was a painter. Since De Bie called himself a philosopher, it may be assumed that he studied philosophy, possibly at the University of Louvain. He had a broad knowledge of languages, including Latin, Italian, and Spanish. He married twice. His first wife, Elisabeth Smith, died in 1662 in an accident. She left him with four children. Four more children were born out of his second marriage to Isabella Caelheyt (died 1706).

Archaeologist and art historian of ancient theater. Bieber was the daughter of Jacob Heinrich Bieber, a factory owner, and Valli Bukofzer (Bieber). In 1899 she was privately tutored in Berlin, receiving her Abitur. In Berlin she studied under Hermann Diels (1848-1922), Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1848-1931), and Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz. In 1904 she moved to Bonn to study under Georg Loeschke as well as Paul Clemen and Franz Bücheler (1837-1908).

Specialist in classical Greek and Roman art, particularly known for his focused interpretations and histories of single works of art. Forced to leave his university studies in 1935 because of the Jewish heritage of his father, but remained in Germany and survived a forced labor camp (Organization Todt) in France to return to Germany and resume his studies. After finishing his habilitation in 1947, began teaching at the University of Greifswald where he advanced to the rank of full professor in 1959.

Riemenschneider scholar, professor and director of the North Carolina Museum of Art. Bier grew up in a wealthy Nuremberg family. He attended the Humanistisches Gymnasium in that city. After graduation in 1917, he fought in the first World War 1917-18. Between 1919 and 1924 Bier studied art history, archaeology, and medieval and modern history at the universities in Munich, Erlangen, Jena, Bonn and finally Zürich. His major professors were Paul Clemen and Heinrich Wölfflin.

Print collector, medical doctor; surgeon. Bierens de Haan was the son of David Bierens de Haan, professor of mathematics and physics at Leiden University, and Johanna Catharina Justina IJssel de Schepper. The young Bierens de Haan attended the Leiden gymnasium and, from 1887 to 1894, he studied medicine at Leiden University. He also received training in hospitals and universities abroad, in particular in Bonn, Vienna, Paris, and London. In those years he began building up his print collection, while visiting the European print rooms.

Art patronage scholar of XVIII c. Holland.

Artists' biographies (basically Florentine) 1530.

Early Warburg Institute developer and Director. Bing's parents were Moritz Bing and Emma Jonas (Bing). After attending the Lyceum in Hamburg, 1909-1913 and receiving an abitur from the Heinrich-Hertz Realgymnasium in 1916, she attended the universities of Munich and then Hamburg concentrating in philosophy. Her dissertation, written under Ernst Cassirer in 1921, focused on Lessing and Leibniz.

Poet; Assistant Keeper of Prints and Drawing, British Museum. Binyon's father was Frederick Binyon (1838-1900), a minister, and mother Mary Dockray (Binyon), the daughter of Robert Benson Dockray (1811-1871), principal engineer of the London and Birmingham Railroad. He attended St. Paul's School before pursuing Classics at Trinity College, Oxford University. In 1890 he made a first in classical moderations, and in 1892, a second in litterae humainoires. He joined the Department of Printed Books at the British Museum beginning in 1893.

1549 book, narrative history of painting.

Professor of Baroque art, UCLA. Birkmeyer received his Ph.D. from Humbolt University in 1943. With the victory of the Allies over Germany in 1945, Birkmeyer was made Chief advisor and administrator to the Fine Arts & Architecture section of the American Military government in Bavaria, concluding his services in 1948. He immigrated to the United States where he was appointed assistant professor of art history at Stanford University in 1950. He moved the the University of California, Los Angeles in 1953, rising to professor of art in 1962. He chaired the department of art 1966-1968.

historian of Czech art; architecture

Gentileschi (family) scholar; University of Michigan Italianist art historian. Bissell was the son of Raymond A. Bissell (1909-1992) a heating & air dealer, and Elizabeth I Weston (Bissell) (1906-1993). He received his Ph.D. in 1968, writing his dissertation on Orazio Gentileschi under Harold E. Wethey. He wrote a book on Orazio in 1981. Gentileschi's daughter, Aremisia, was at the same time rising in interest due to women's studies courses. Bissell published the catalogue raisonné on the work of Artemisia in 1998. He retired from the University in 2006.

South Kensington Museum curator. He co-authored Leonardo da Vinci and his Works in 1874 with Mary Margaret Heaton.

Critic and historian of French and Italian art; chair in the history of art at the Collège de France (1878); first editor of the Gazette des beaux-arts. Originally trained as an engraver, Blanc began submitting journal articles to Bons Sens and Le Progrès in 1836. Throughout his career, he was politically active, advocating increased government support for the arts. In 1848, Blanc was appointed head of the Bureau des Beaux-Arts.

New York University Institute of Fine Arts professor of classical art history. Blanckenhagen's lectures drew large crowds at the Institute. "Seemingly without notes or preparation he would speak eloquently for an hour on each statue, and sometimes for it, making it seem as if ancient statues, whether male or female, possessed deep, rich, German-accented voices" (Nelson).

UCLA art history professor, 1956-1975; founding director of Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts; Americanist. Bloch was the son of Leonard Bloch and Rose von Auspitz (Bloch). He graduated from New York University with a B.F.A., intent on becoming an artist, in 1939. After a short stint at Harvard University for graduate study in 1940, he returned to NYU and the Institute of Fine Arts, where his A.M. was granted in 1942.

Museum director and scholar of Romanesque and 19th-century German sculpture. Bloch was the son of a Berlin book publisher, Peter Bloch and mother Charlotte Streckenbach (Bloch). He attended the Gymnasium in Steglitz, graduating in 1943. Despite having a Jewish background, Bloch joined the German army. He was wounded in battle and taken as a prisoner of war, remaining in a Belgian POW camp (working in the mines) until 1948.

Architect and architectural historian; published the important early survey of British architecture, The History of Renaissance Architecture in England, 1500-1800 (1897). Blomfield's father was Reverend George John Blomfield (d. 1900), vicar of Dartford, and his mother, Isabella Blomfield. His parents were distant cousins. After attending Haileybury College he entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 1875, graduating in 1879. With a talent for art, Blomfield initially considered becoming a sculptor.

Architect and architectural historian; first to launch the controversy regarding whether Greek sculpture had been painted during ancient times. Blouet studied architecture under Pierre-Jules-Nicolas Delespine (1756-1825) at the école des Beaux-Arts, Paris in 1817. In 1821 he was awarded the Prix de Rome. In Rome, Blouet worked closely with Antoine Quatremère de Quincy, completing drawings for the restoration of ancient monuments.

Director of the Berlin State Museum and early examiner of material used by ancient Greeks. Bluemel weighed in on the controversial authenticity case of the Metropolitan bronze horse. The antiquities procurer John Marshall (1862-1928) had acquired a small bronze horse in 1923 for the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In 1967, the museum's financial director, Joseph V. Noble, and the curator in the Department of Greek and Roman Art, Dietrich von Bothmer, announced that the bronze was a forgery based upon stylistic grounds and gamma ray testing.

Specialist in ancient Greek and Roman art. Curator (1929-1935) and Professor (1935-39, 1944-61) at the Berlin Museum. Director of the antiquities collection at the Berlin Museum 1947-1961, Blümel was responsible for rebuilding the collection on the Museumsinsel (in East Berlin) after the war.

Classical archaeologist, art historian and successor to Karl Dilthey as professor at the University of Zürich, 1887-1919. Born the son of a policeman, Blümner studied archaeology at the University in Bonn under Otto Jahn, whose philology deeply influenced him. He taught initially at Breslau and Königsberg. In 1887 he succeeded Karl Dilthey as professor of classics at the university in Zürich.

Historian of French and Italian art; Warburg Institute professor; director of the Courtauld Institute; Soviet spy. Blunt was born to minor privilege, his father, Arthur Stanley Vaughan Blunt (1870-1929), the chaplain to the British Embassy in Paris. His mother was Hilda Master Blunt (1880-1969). From early on, he gained an appreciation for French art and architecture. Like his brothers would, Blunt received a scholarship to Marlborough College. His first position, upon graduating from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1930, was as art critic for the (London) Spectator.

Art teacher, author and curator of the Watts Museum near Guildford. Blunt was born to Arthur Stanley Vaughan Blunt (1870-1929), an Anglican minister and Hilda Master (Blunt) (1880-1969). His father was the chaplain to the British Embassy in Paris. As his younger brothers did, Blunt received a scholarship to Marlborough College where he studied between 1914 and 1920. Blunt's conservative views toward modern art were already in place.

Classical art historian, specialist in Greek pottery. Boardman was born to Frederick Archibald Boardman and Clara Wells (Boardman). He graduated from Magdalene College, Cambridge with a B. A. in 1948. He served in the Intelligence Corps, British Army, 1950-52, rising to second lieutenant. In 1951 he was awarded an M.A. (his highest degree) from Cambridge in 1951. The following year he married Sheila Joan Lyndon Stanford. Boardman was named assistant director at the British School at Athens, Athens, in1952. He participated in the excavations at Chios, 1953-55.

Columbia University anthropologist who wrote an early text on indigenous art forms. Boas was the son of Meier Boas and Sophie Meyer (Boas). He attended Bonn, Heidelberg, and Kiel universities studying physics, mathematics, and geography, the latter under the distinguished Theobald Fischer. Boas obtained his doctorate in physics at the University of Kiel in 1881. A non-religious Jew, he was fascinated by the theories of geographical determinism in Europe at the time.

Philosopher and historian of ideas scholar; wrote early social histories of art. Boas was born in Providence, Rhode Island, the fifth of seven children of Herman Boas and Sarah Eisenberg (Boas). He attended Classical High School in Providence, RI, where his early interest in Greek and Latin grew. After graduation, Boas studied art at the Rhode Island School of Design under Henry Hunt Clark (b. 1875) and transferred to study English at Brown University, where he completed his B.A. and M.A. in 1913. He studied under the philosopher Josiah Royce (1855-1916) and received his second M.A.

Second director of the Courtauld Institute and scholar of the art of the Crusades. Boase was the son of Charles Millet Boase, a bleaching mill manager at near Dundee and Anne Malcolm Sherrer Ross. He attended Rugby School from 1912. A prize given for an essay on Lorenzo de' Medici led to a scholarship at Magdalen College, Oxford. At Oxford he studied under the historian Francis Fortescue Urquhart (1868-1934), known as "Sligger," whose method can be seen in Boase's own work.