After teaching at the universities of Bologna and Catania, Arias joined the department of archaeology at the University of Pisa in 1961. His survey of Greek vase painting, Mille anni di ceramica greca, published in 1960, was published in English, German and French. In 1968 he was appointed chair of the department.
University of California, Santa Barbara medievalist architectural historian. Armi was the son of Edgar Leo Armi and Emita December (Armi). He graduated from Columbia College, Columbia University with a B. A. in 1967, continuing for his M.A. and Ph.D. After research as a Woodrow Wilson fellow, 1970-1972, his dissertation on Romanesque wall structure was accepted in 1973. Armi secured an appointment at the University of Chicago as an assistant professor in 1974.
British historian of English and Dutch Art. Armstrong was the son of Walter Armstrong, a merchant, and his wife, Mary Graham (Armstrong). He was initially educated at the Harrow School, later graduating from Exeter College, Oxford. Armstrong married Jane Emily Rose Ferard of Ascot Place in 1873. In 1880, Armstrong distinguished himself as an art critic, writing for various papers, like Pall Mall Gazette, St. James's Gazette, Manchester Guardian, and The Examiner.
Director of the Walker Art Center 1951-1961; wrote a popular survey of modern art. Arnason was born to Sveinbjorn and Maria Bjarnadottir (Arnason), Icelandic immigrants to Canada. He attended the University of Manitoba for two years (1925-1927) before immigrating to the United States. There he attended Northwestern University, achieving his B.S. in 1931. In 1936 he married Elizabeth Hickox Yard and taught as an instructor. After gaining his A.M. in 1937, Arnason continued to study art at Princeton University where he was awarded an M.F.A. in 1939. He was made a naturalized citizen in 1940.
Private art scholar and dealer of ancient Greek sculpture and portraits. Son of an affluent merchant in Mecklenburg, Arndt studied classical art with Johannes Overbeck in Leipzig and Enrico Brunn in Munich. His dissertation, written under Brunn, focused on Greek vase types. He never attempted a habilitationschrift. Brunn took Arndt for his assistant. Because of his financial independence, Arndt could afford to remain a private scholar.
Philosopher of perception and art; used Gestalt psychology for his art-historical studies. Arnheim was the son of Georg Arnheim (1867-1944), a piano factory owner, and Betty Gutherz (Arnheim) (1879-1966). He was raised in Berlin, attending the Herdergymnasium (Abitur 1923). His parents intended him to assume the family business, but beginning in 1923 Arnheim, studied art and music history, philosophy and psychology at the University of Berlin with Gestalt-based scholars Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967) and Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). His Ph.D.
Archaeologist and architectural historian of ancient Rome. Ashby attended Winchester where he already secured the nickname "Titus". At 16, his family abandoned a brewing concern to move to Rome because his father wished to explore the Campagna. Through his father, Ashby met the archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani (1847-1929). He won a scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford University, studying under Sir John L. Myres (1869-1954) and Francis J. Haverfield (1860-1919).
Greek sculpture scholar and Yates Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of London, 1929-1948. Ashmole was the son of an auctioneer, William Ashmole, and Sarah Caroline Wharton Tiver (Ashmole). He was related to Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), the namesake of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, for which Ashmole would one day work. After attending Forest School (1903-1911) he was admitted to Hertford College, Oxford, in 1913 awarded the Essex Scholarship in Classics. However, Britain entered into World War I the following year and Ashmole joined the 11th Royal Fusiliers.
New York Times critic, professor at Cooper Hewitt and scholar of the New York School of art. Aston was the daughter of Ralph Neil Ashton and Sylvia Smith Shapiro (Ashton). Her father was a medical doctor. She obtained a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1949, continuing for an M.A. at Harvard University the following year. Ashton began her career as associate editor of the magazine Art Digest, published in New York beginning in 1951. She married Adja Yunkers (d.1983), an artist, in 1953.
Scholar of Chinese art; Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum (1945-1955). Ashton was the son of A. J. Ashton, KC, a court recorder in Manchester, England. He graduated from Winchester and Balliol Colleges, Oxford. He served as a lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Artillery in World War I between 1916-1919. Ashton joined the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1922 in the department of Architecture and Sculpture as an assistant Keeper (curator). In 1925 he transferred to the Department of Textiles and again in 1931 to the Department of Ceramics.
Askew's father was the art historian Arthur K. McComb and mother Constance Atwood. She was born while her father was teaching art history at Vassar. Her parents were divorced when she was young and her step father, the art dealer R. Kirk Askew (1903-1974), adopted her. Askew grew up in New York City. As a college student, she majored in English at Vassar College. Her A.M. from the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University was completed in 1951.
Medievalist and educator; director of the Société français d'archéologie; and professor of the l'école de Chartes, l'école du Louvre, l'école des Beaux-Arts. Aubert's father was an architect (d. 1891). Aubert attended the Lycée Condorcet and then the École Nationale des Chartes. At the École a thesis on the Cathedral of Senlis under the Romanesque scholar Robert Charles de Lasteyrie du Saillant in 1907. Aubert joined the Department of Prints of the Bibliothèque nationale in 1909, rising to assistant librarian in the department in 1911.
First British architectural historian to treat at medieval building in England as "architecture."
Artist and art historian. Auerbach grew up in an educated Jewish family in Frankfurt. Her mother was the painter, Emma Kehrmann (1867-1958). She studied art history between 1917-24 at the universities in Frankfurt, Bonn and Munich, under Rudolf Kautzsch and Heinrich Wölfflin. Her 1925 Frankfurt dissertation, under Kautzsch, focused on 16th-century German portraiture in Franken, Schwaben and Bavaria. She taught at Frankfurter Volksbildungsheim (1925-33).
Art historian of Italian renaissance. Auerbach studied art history in Hamburg with the so-called Hamburg School art historians Charles de Tolnay, Fritz Saxl, Aby M. Warburg and Erwin Panofsky. She wrote her dissertation under Panofsky on Andrea del Sarto in 1932. She married one of the first Bauhaus school students, the sculptor and graphic artist Johannes Auerbach (changed to John Allenby in England,1900-1950) and immigrated to England in 1938.
Director of the Wadsworth Atheneum, early exponent of modern art in America. Austin was born to wealthy Boston parents, his father was a research, Arthur Everett Austin, Sr.(1861-1938) and his mother, Laura Ann Etnier (Austin) (1864-1944), who was herself independently wealthy. Raised essentially by his mother, Austin attended local grammar schools and visited Europe as a child. Never a good student, he entered Harvard but was asked to leave because of poor grades.
Deputy Keeper of the Department of Sculpture at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1966-1979; Director of Christie's, 1979-1990. In 1980 he curated the "European Terracottas from the Arthur M. Sackler Collection" show for the National Gallery of Art in Washgington, D. C. He delivered the William D. Finlay Lecture at the National Gallery of Ireland in 2001.
Medieval art scholar and chair of Department of Art, Wellesley College; influential in1920s-30s. Avery graduated from Wellesley in 1891 majoring in Greek. She taught Greek and Latin briefly before moving to the University of the State of New York, Albany. She was employed in the library system at Albany, organizing the first traveling library and working on a bachelors in library science which she received in 1895. While a librarian organizing pictures for schools and clubs, she became interested in art.
Author of the thirteenth volume in the important Ars Hispaniae series (1949).
His book, Manual of Oriental Antiquities (1889) was one of the early required texts to be listed in the course catalog for the art history classes of Princeton University.
Spanish art history; monograph on the Escorial.
Painter and art historian.
German specialist in Asian art history, including East Asian, Southeast Asian, and Indian art and sculpture. Bachhofer began his studies in 1916 before a tour of service as a soldier in the First World War. He returned to his studies in 1918 in Munich studying art history (under Heinrich Wölfflin, archaeology, philosophy and ethnography of Asia under Lucian Scherman (1864-1946). He completed a dissertation on Japanese woodcuts under these men (whom it is unclear).
Professor of law who converted to archaeology in mid-life. Specialized in funerary art and the archaeology of grave sites.
Private scholar; art historian of the baroque and modern periods; methodological theorist. Badt was born to a prosperous Banking family in Berlin. His father, Leopold Badt (1858-1929) raised his children in a rarefied cultural atmosphere, giving them every opportunity to experience art. The younger Badt attended the Berlin-Charlottenburg Reformgymnasium, graduating in 1906. Between 1909-1914 he studied art history and philosophy at the universities of Berlin, Munich and finally at Freiburg (im Breisgau) under Wilhelm Vöge.
Painter and first historian of the Roman Baroque through two early art histories, a biography of artists, Vite de' pittori, scultori, architetti (1642), and a survey of Roman churches, Le nove chiese di Roma (1639). Baglione described himself as having descended a noble family from Perugia. In his autobiography appended to his Lives of the Artists, Le vite, 1642, Baglione claimed as well that he studied art under the painter Francesco Morelli in Rome. He worked as a painter, employing a Caravaggesque style, and received numerous commissions.
Americanist art historian and professor of art history at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J. Baigell graduated undergraduate from the University of Vermont in 1954 and received his M.A. from Columbia University in 1955. He married Renee Moses in 1959. His Ph.D. was awarded at the University of Pennsylvania in 1965. He served in the U.S. Air Force between 1955-57 as lieutenant. Between 1961-65 was an instructor at Ohio State University, advancing to assistant professor, 1965-67, and then associate professor of art, 1967-68.
Blake scholar; National Gallery, London, keeper and painter. Baker's parents were John Collins Baker, a solicitor in Somerset, and Fanny Henrietta Remmett. He attended Berkhamsted before entering the Royal Academy Schools, studying painting. In 1903 he married Muriel Isabella Alexander (1874/5-1956). Baker worked as a landscape painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1907 and elsewhere through 1916. In 1911 he began writing art criticism for The Outlook and succeeded D. S. MacColl as the art critic for the Saturday Review.
Vienna-School art historian, Netherlandish specialist and Director of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Baldass studied in Graz, Halle (under Adolph Goldschmidt) and Munich before gaining his degree at the University in Vienna. His thesis, written under Max Dvořák and accepted in 1911, was on portraiture of the Emperor Maximilian. Baldass joined the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna the same year, eventually being appointed curator in 1918. He married Paula Wagner, granddaughter of the architect Otto Wagner (1841-1918).
Historian of the Italian Renaissance; headed restoration in Italy after Arno River flood, 1966. Baldini studied art history under Mario Salmi at the University of Florence. In the 1940's began working as a conservator in Florence. After the war, he was appointed a temporary worker in the restoration office in 1949, housed at the time in the loggia of the Uffizi.
Collector of drawings and connoisseur; worked on a universal history of art. An annotated translation of his life of Bernini was annotated and translated into German by the eminent Austrian art historian Aloïs Riegl, published in 1912.
Medievalist, Focillon student. Baltrušaitis was the son of Jurgis Baltrušaitis, senior (1873-1944) a Symbolist poet, translator and man of letters. He was raised in the intensely cultural environment of his parents. His father was deeply pro-Russia, translating many Western works of literature into Russian and acting as the first chairman of the Soviet Writers' Union. The younger Baltrušaitis had the poet Boris Pasternak (1890-1960) as a teacher. Baltrušaitis moved to Paris to further his education in 1923, studying at the Sorbonne.
Wrote memoirs of artists; first published in 1905.
Medievalist architectural historian whose influential book on architectural type significance and reception influenced post-war generation of medievalists. Bandmann grew up in Essen. He studied art history at the University in Cologne, inspired by the modern art which had been at the Folkwang Museum there until purged by the Nazis in 1933. Bandmann's dissertation written under Hans Kauffmann in 1942 focused on the abbey church of Essen-Werden.
Maverick architectural theorist and historian; modernism and pop-culture revisionist. Banham's parents were Percy Banham, a gas engineer, and Violet Reyner (Banham). The younger Banham was educated at King Edward VI School, Norwich, UK. Too young to join the military during World War II, he worked as an engine fitter at the Bristol Aeroplane Company. Banham entered the Courtauld Institute of London University in 1945 to study art history. He married Mary Mullett the following year.
Author, art scholar, cinema critic, and translator; wife pupil of the art historian Roberto Longhi. Banti was born Lucia Lopresti. Her father, a lawyer for the railways, Luigi-Vincenzo, was an avid literature enthusiast and her mother was Gemma Benin, both of them of Calabrian background. She attended the Liceo Tasso di Roma (a lyceum or high school), where in 1914 she encountered the young art historian (and future husband) Roberto Longhi.
Etruscan specialist. Banti worked at the Vatican Library between 1930 and 1940 and on the excavations at Crete before her appointment to the University of Rome in the history of religions. In 1948 she was appointed chair of archaeology at the University of Pavia, moving two years later to Florence to teach Etruscan studies, 1950-65 [Archivio biografico italiano states 1954-74]. She also lectured at various American universities during this time. In 1965 she became director of the Istituto di Studi Etruschi, which she held until 1972.
Barasch was born to Menachem and Gusta Barasch in Czernowitz, Romania, (present day Ukraine) once an important center of Jewish culture. His father was a Zionist who introduced his son to the tradition of Haskalah, the Jewish Enlightenment. The young Barasch showed himself to have substantial art talent. By age 13, he had already exhibited his drawings and paintings in Czernowitz, Prague, Budapest and Boston, which he visited. He wrote daily in his notebooks, one of which was a diary.
Vassar faculty member from 1931 to 1968 known for lectures on 14th and 15th century Italian painters; led Vassar College wartime defense program during WWII. Barber was raised in Chicago, IL. She graduated with a B.A. from Bryn Mawr in philosophy and psychology while she studying under famed medievalist and art historian Georgiana Goddard King. She received an M.A. in art history from Radcliffe in medieval sculpture and Renaissance painting, continuing graduate work at Radcliffe until 1931.
First female professor at La Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa; known for publishing an authoritative monograph on Giorgio Vasari’s Lives. Barocchi grew up spending time in her family's goldsmith shop in Florence, Italy, near the Ponte Vecchio, which she admitted helped refine her aesthetic sense of experiencing the world as a visual field (Passerini).
Documentary architectural historian
Founder, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Barr was the son of a Presbyterian minister, Alfred Hamilton Barr, Sr., and a homemaker Annie Elizabeth Wilson (Barr). The family moved to Baltimore where Barr was raised. His childhood friends included Edward Stauffer King, later director of the Walters Art Gallery. Barr graduated at age 16 (valedictorian) from high school and entered Princeton University in 1918. At that the same year he read Henry Adam's Mont Saint Michel and Chartres influencing him toward art history.
Director of the Städtische Kunstsammlungen Breslau (Municipal Art Collections Breslau) and Nazi art ideologue. After the German attack on Poland in 1939, Barthel collaborated with the head Nazi art plundering in Poland, Kajetan Mühlmann to write Nazi-ideological books on Polish culture, making the argument that Poland was really part of Germany. During the Third Reich years, Barthel participated in art looting in Poland and co-authored the catalogue "Secured Works of Art in the General Government" that listed cultural assets that had been confiscated in Poland.
Museum curator; author of first modern comprehensive catalog of prints, Le Peintre-graveur. Bartsch was the son of a court official of Prince Starhemberg of Austria. He studied academic subjects at the University in Vienna and then drawing and engraving at Viennese Academy of Arts (Kupferstecherakademie) under Jacob Schmuzer (1733-1811). From 1777-1781 he worked in the Imperial Library, cataloging books. Between 1783-4 he was sent to Paris with the print collection's registrar, Paul Strattmann, to acquire the print collection of the Johann Anton de Peters (1725-1795).
Author of a history of Greek and Roman artists. Bartsch was the son of the more famous, Adam von Bartsch. From 1814 onwards he assisted his father in the imperial library collection of prints. In 1818 he published a catalog of his father's collection, the Catalogue des estampes de J. Adam de Bartsch. He succeeded his father at the imperial print collection in 1827. In 1835 Bartsch issued a history of artists of the classical Greek and Roman era, Chronologie der griechischen und römischen Künstler. Like his father, too, he was an etcher.