Read, Herbert, Sir

Full Name: 
Read, Herbert, Sir
Other Names: 
Sir Herbert Read
Sir Herbert Edward Read
Year Born: 
1893
Year Died: 
1968
Place Born: 
Kirby Moorside, Yorkshire, England, UK
Place Died: 
Stonegrave, Yorkshire, England, UK
Home Country: 
UK
Overview: 
Historian of modern art and art critic. Read was the eldest of three sons born to a Yorkshire, England, farmer. Orphaned early, he was sent to Crossley's School, Halifax. At age 16 he worked as a bank clerk, studying in the evenings for entrance to Leeds University. He entered Leeds in 1912 where he initially studied economics. After graduation, he served in the army in World War I (1915-1918) with distinction, rising to the rank of captain and engaging in battles in Belgium and France. In 1919 he married Evelyn Roff. After military service, Read worked in the British civil service as the secretary to the Controller of Establishments. In 1922 he joined the department of Ceramics at the Victoria and Albert Museum. There he wrote books on English stained glass and pottery (one with fellow curator Bernard Rackham). As a museum curator, Read made professional contacts in Germany, becoming close friends with Bonn professor of art history Wilhelm Worringer, and director of the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Max Sauerlandt. Read translated Worringer's influential book Formprobleme der Gotik, 1912, into English as Form in Gothic in 1927. Through Sauerlandt and Worringer, he met the Bauhaus artists and architects who helped him form many of his ideas on modern art. Read also published literary criticism in the magazine New Age. In 1931 he left the Victoria and Albert Museum for the Watson Gordon chair of fine arts position at Edinburgh University. During these years as an academician he published some of his most influential texts. In 1931, perhaps his most famous book on art, The Meaning of Art, appeared. It was followed by Art Now: an Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture in 1933 and Art and Industry in 1934. Read left the University in 1933 to edit the Burlington Magazine. During these years he lived in Hampstead and came to know many of the artists whom he would champion in later years. These included Henry Moore, Ben Nicholson and Nicholson's wife, Barbara Hepworth. For the academic year 1935-1936 he was Sydney Jones lecturer in art at the University of Liverpool. His first marriage dissolved, he married Margaret Ludwig in 1936. In 1937 Read used his position as editor of the Burlington Magazine to lead a protest of the appointment of Thomas Boase as second director of the Courtauld Institute, questioning the direction of the institution. Read left the Magazine in 1939, succeeded by A. C. Sewter, when he was chosen to be the first director of a museum of modern art in London. The entry of Britain into the second world war prevented the museum's establishment. During the early war years he was the Leon fellow at the University of London 1940-1942. Read's writing during this time shows clearest his sympathies with socialism and the notion that refined aesthetics could lead to social harmony. His Art and Society appeared in 1937 and Anarchy and Order in 1945. Perhaps most influential book, because of the numerous translations, was his 1943 Education through Art, essentially a manifesto of the anarchism Read embraced. After the war, Read joined the book publishing firm of Routledge and Keegan Paul where he edited a series on "English Master Painters." Together with Roland Penrose, he founded the Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA) in 1947. He was knighted in 1953, lecturing as the Charles Eliot Norton Fellow at Harvard University between 1953-1954. An A. W. Mellon lecture at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, followed in 1954. Read focused a great deal of his writing in the 1950's and after on Henry Moore, building on an initial volume of 1944 into his Henry Moore: a Study of His Life and Work in 1965. In 1959, the first edition of his Concise History of Modern Painting was published. A lifelong pacifist, perhaps due to his personal war experiences (his brother was killed in World War I), he participated in the Ban the Bomb movement including a sitdown strike in Trafalgar Square. His papers reside at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Selected Bibliography: 
"The Dynamics of Art." Eranos-Jahrbuch 1952. Zürich: Rhein-Verlag, p. 195; and Rackham, Bernard. English Pottery: its Development from Early Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century. New York: Scribner's, 1924; Henry Moore: Sculpture and Drawings. [eventually 6 vols., other authors edited] New York: C. Valentin, 1944-68; The Meaning of Art. London: Faber & Faber, 1931, [published in the United States as] The Anatomy of Art: an Introduction to the Problems of Art and Aesthetics. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1932; Art and Industry: the Principles of Industrial Design. London: Faber & Faber, 1934; Art and Society. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937; Annals of Innocence and Experience. London: Faber and Faber, 1940 [subsequent editions published under the title The Innocent Eye]; The Philosophy of Anarchism. London: Freedom Press, 1943; Education Through Art. London: Faber and Faber, 1946; The Grass Roots of Art: Four Lectures on Social Aspects of Art in an Industrial Age. New York: Wittenborn, 1946, [stated as 1947]; Contemporary British Art. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1951; The Philosophy of Modern Art: Collected Essays. London: Faber and Faber, 1952; Ben Nicholson: Paintings. Little Library of Art 45. London: Methuen, 1962; To Hell with Culture and Other Essays on Art and Society. London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1963; Henry Moore: a Study of his Life and Work. New York: Praeger, 1966.
Sources: 
Read, Herbert. Annals of Innocence and Experience. London: Faber and Faber, 1940 [subsequent editions published under the title The Innocent Eye]; Fisherman, Soloman. The Interpretation of Art: Essays on the Art of Criticism of John Ruskin, Walther Pater, Clive Bell, Roger Fry and Herbert Read. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963, pp. 143-86; Herbert Read: A Memorial Symposium. Edited by Robin Skelton. London: Methuen, 1970; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 12; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Research Guide to the History of Western Art. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, p. 102 mentioned; Thistlewood, David. Dictionary of Art 26: 49-50; "Sir Herbert Read: Poet, Critic and Interpreter of Modern Art." Times [London] June 13, 1968; p. 12.
Contributor: 
Lee Sorensen